Skip to main content

Table 1 Definition of food groups

From: Reproducibility and validity of a food frequency questionnaire among pregnant women in a Mediterranean area

Food groups Foods
Dairy Products (11) whole milk; semi-skimmed milk; skimmed or low fat milk; condensed milk; full cream; whole and low fat yogurt; whole and low-fat cheese; custard, cream caramel, pudding; ice-cream
white meat (3) Chicken or turkey with; and without skin; game (duck, quail, rabbit)
Red meat (4) Beef, pork or lamb; liver; offal; hamburger
Processed meat (4) ham, salami and others; sausages; pate; bacon
Lean fish (2) hake, sole, gilthead and similar white fish type; assorted or mixed fried fish
Fatty fish (5) swordfish, bonito, and fresh tuna; small oily fish (mackerel, sardine; anchovy); canned tuna; canned sardine or mackerel; dry or smoked fish.
Seafood (4) clams, mussels; squid, octopus; shellfish (cramps, shrimps, lobster); surimi and other fish-based food products
Fruits (10) oranges; orange juice; bananas; apples or pears; peaches, nectarines, or apricots; watermelon or melon; grapes; prunes or plums; kiwis; olives
Vegetables (12) spinach; cabbage, cauliflower or broccoli; lettuce or endive; tomatoes; onions; carrots or squash; green beans; eggplant, zucchini, or cucumber; green, red, or yellow peppers; artichokes; asparagus; and garlic
Cereals and Pasta (4) Breakfast cereals; corn; rice; pasta
Bread (2) white and whole breads
Sweets and sugar (7) biscuits; cookies; baked goods; added sugar; marmalade, honey; chocolate; chocolate/cocoa powder
Vegetable Fat (4) Olive oil; sunflower, corn oils; margarine; mayonnaise