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Table 1 Sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and control groups

From: Resting energy expenditure and carbohydrate oxidation are higher in elderly patients with COPD: a case control study

Characteristics Control group COPD group p
n = 20 n = 20
n % n %
Gender      1.000
Males 16 80 16 80
Females 4 20 4 20
Age      0.47
(years) 75.5± 7.65 (61-86) 73.7± 8.0 (61-86)
Race/Color      1.0000
White 17 85 17 85
Non-white 3 15 3 15
Marital status      0.1504
Married 16 80 13 65
Widowed 1 5 5 25
Divorced 1 1 2 10
Single 2 10 - -
Occupation      0.5483
Inactive 19 95 18 90
Active 1 5 2 10
Education level      0.0274*
Illiterate - - 3 15
Elementary school 9 45 11 55
High school 8 40 1 5
Higher education 3 15 5 25
Place of residence      0.03501*
Lins 20 100 16 80
Other cities - - 4 20
Nutritional status      0.0705
Normal weight 11 55 12 60
Underweight - - 3 15
Overweight 5 25 5 25
Obese 4 20 - -
Duration of COPD - - 4.65 ± 2.97 - -
Smoking status      0.00091*
Non-smoker 12 60 2 10
Ex-smoker and smoker 8 40 18 90
High blood pressure 9 45 9 45 1.000
Diabetes mellitus type 2 - - 3 15 0.0717
Physical activity      0.03501*
Active 16 80 20 100
Inactive 4 20 - -  
  1. COPD: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; * = p indicates a significant difference between the groups; Gender, race/color, marital status, occupation, education level, nutritional status: chi-square test; place of residence: Fisher’s exact test; age: unpaired Student’s t-test.