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Table 5 Effect of probiotics on acute post exercise cytokine response (factor changes)

From: Lactobacillus fermentum (PCC®) supplementation and gastrointestinal and respiratory-tract illness symptoms: a randomised control trial in athletes

  Probiotic
group
(mean ×/÷ SD)
Placebo
group
(mean ± SD)
Ratio effect of
probiotic treatment
relative to placebo
(mean; 99% CI)
Qualitative
inference
Males
Anti-inflammatory
IL-1ra 0.84 ×/÷ 2.42 1.39 ×/÷ 1.42 0.60; 0.41 to 0.88 Very Likely ↓
IL-10 0.95 ×/÷ 1.69 1.16 ×/÷ 1.44 0.78: 0.61 to 0.99 Possible ↓
Immuno-regulatory
IL-6 0.92 ×/÷ 2.14 1.22 ×/÷ 2.1 0.75; 0.51 to 1.1 Likely ↓
Pro-inflammatory
IL-8 0.80 ×/÷2.46 0.87 ×/÷ 2.02 0.71; 0.60 to 1.25 Unclear
GM-CSF 0.78 ×/÷ 2.66 1.75 ×/÷ 2.20 0.45; 0.28 to 0.72 Very Likely ↓
IFN-γ 1.2 ×/÷ 2.30 1.49 ×/÷ 2.10 0.81; 0.54 to 1.21 Likely ↓
TNF-α 1.27 ×/÷ 2.02 1.66 ×/÷ 2.22 0.77; 0.51 to 1.14 Likely ↓
Females
Anti-inflammatory
IL-1ra 0.80 ×/÷ 2.44 1.88 ×/÷ 2.16 0.42; 0.23 to 0.78 Very Likely ↓
IL-10 0.89 ×/÷ 1.84 1.45 ×/÷ 2.03 0.61; 0.38 to 1.0 Possible ↓
Immuno-regulatory
IL-6 0.71 ×/÷ 2.93 2.29 ×/÷ 4.8 0.31; 0.11 to 0.84 Likely ↓
Pro-inflammatory
IL-8 0.71 ×/÷ 2.7 1.15 ×/÷ 2.5 0.62; 0.30 to 1.27 Probably ↓
GM-CSF 0.85 ×/÷ 2.75 3.3 ×/÷ 3.9 0.25; 0.10 to 0.64 Very Likely ↓
IFN-γ 1.07 ×/÷ 2.8 1.56 ×/÷ 2.1 0.68; 0.47 to 1.0 Likely ↓
TNF-α 1.15 ×/÷ 2.0 1.72 ×/÷ 1.8 0.67 0.47 to 0.94 likely ↓
  1. SD, factor standard deviation; CI, confidence interval.
  2. Smallest clinically important values for assessing effects qualitatively: ratios, × ÷1.20; differences, ± 0.5.