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Table 3 Relationship between energy-adjusted micronutrients intakes and risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in a case-control study in Iran1

From: Macronutrients, vitamins and minerals intake and risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma: a case-control study in Iran

Micronutrients Tertiles of Intake2OR (95%CI)
  Model 13   Model 24  
  Tertile1 6 Tertile2 Tertile3 P-trend 7 Tertile 1 5 Tertile 2 Tertile 3 P-trend 6
Vitamin A, RAE Number 1.00 (48) 0.82 (0.19-1.50) (49) 0.93 (0.50-2.86) (46) 0.94 1.00 0.83 (0.09-1.86) 0.72 (0.38-2.12) 0.53
β-carotene, μg Number 1.00 (48) 1.59 (0.32-2.86) (47) 1.29 (0.51-3.65) (48) 0.71 1.00 1.21 (0.13-2.68) 1.07 (0.81-2.13) 0.14
Vitamin D, μg Number 1.00 (48) 1.10 (0.62-1.75) (47) 0.28 (0.17-0.89) (48) <0.001 1.00 0.84 (0.39-2.74) 0.28 (0.02-0.91) <0.001
Vitamin E, mg TE Number 1.00 (47) 0.19 (0.03-0.94) (48) 0.07 (0.01-0.63) (48) <0.001 1.00 0.32 (0.12-0.91) 0.11 (0.03-0.74) <0.001
α-tocopherol, mg Number 1.00 (47) 0.61 (0.12-0.95) (48) 0.26 (0.09-0.74) (48) <0.001 1.00 0.86 (0.14-1.17) 0.47 (0.02-1.85) 0.31
Thiamine, mg Number 1.00 (47) 0.57(0.21-2.73) (48) 0.41 (0.05-0.89) (48) 0.04 1.00 0.85 (0.61-1.58) 0.34 (0.06-2.85) 0.97
Riboflavin, mg Number 1.00 (47) 0.90 (0.22-1.85) (48) 0.33 (0.15-0.87) (48) <0.001 1.00 1.90 (0.17-2.12) 0.22 (0.07-0.86) 0.01
Niacin, mg Number 1.00 (48) 0.37 (0.06-2.10) (47) 0.48 (0.10-1.69) (48) 0.17 1.00 0.86 (0.05-2.63) 0.38 (0.15-1.82) 0.09
Panthothenic acid, mg Number 1.00 (47) 0.55 (0.07-2.16) (48) 0.86 (0.29-1.11) (48) 0.50 1.00 0.86 (0.20-1.18) 0.49 (0.35-2.08) 0.74
Vitamin B6, mg Number 1.00 (47) 0.48 (0.15-0.79) (47) 0.11(0.08-0.93) (49) <0.001 1.00 0.76 (0.12-2.33) 0.17 (0.05-0.91) 0.003
Folate, μg Number 1.00 (48) 0.26 (0.07-0.90) (47) 0.08 (0.01-0.92) (48) <0.001 1.00 0.32 (0.01-0.57) 0.08 (0.02-0.90) <0.001
Vitamin B12, μg Number 1.00 (47) 0.58(0.19-1.83) (49) 1.02 (0.39-2.12) (47) 0.14 1.00 0.87 (0.10-2.61) 1.33 (0.60-3.03) 0.15
Vitamin C, mg Number 1.00 (47) 0.69 (0.13-0.75) (49) 0.39 (0.11-0.84) (48) 0.02 1.00 0.76 (0.09-2.43) 0.37 (0.11-0.93) 0.02
Iron, mg Number 1.00 (47) 0.51 (0.07-0.93) (49) 0.69 (0.17-2.60) (47) 0.66 1.00 0.72 (0.35-1.63) 0.61 (0.22-2.48) 0.13
Calcium, mg Number 1.00 (47) 0.27(0.12-0.87) (49) 0.17 (0.03-0.94) (47) <0.001 1.00 0.51 (0.17-1.82) 0.49 (0.15-0.87) 0.03
Phosphorous, mg Number 1.00 (48) 1.09 (0.62-3.29) (47) 0.77 (0.01-2.56) (48) 0.62 1.00 1.35 (0.11-2.95) 1.31 (0.36-2.60) 0.92
Potassium, mg Number 1.00 (48) 0.51 (0.07-1.98) (47) 0.24 (0.11-0.78) (48) 0.03 1.00 0.51 (0.18-2.93) 0.23 (0.03-1.76) 0.44
Sodium, mg Number 1.00 (48) 1.13 (0.22-2.07) (47) 1.52 (1.17-3.44) (48) <0.001 1.00 1.17 (1.05-2.15) 1.49 (1.12-2.89) <0.001
Zinc, mg Number 1.00 (47) 0.79 (0.16-0.73) (48) 0.49 (0.11-0.85) (48) 0.01 1.00 1.39 (0.58-2.17) 0.73 (0.12-0.98) 0.01
Methionine, g Number 1.00 (47) 0.85 (0.09-2.34) (48) 0.63 (0.09-0.96) (48) <0.001 1.00 0.79 (0.06-1.98) 0.29 (0.13-0.95) 0.004
Selenium, μg Number 1.00 (47) 0.32 (0.12-0.94) (48) 0.12 (0.04-0.69) (48) 0.03 1.00 0.63 (0.12-0.91) 0.15 (0.01-0.76) <0.001
  1. OR: Odds ratio; CI: Confidence interval; RAE = Retinol Activity Equivalents; TE= Tocopherol Equivalents
  2. 1Only micronutrients from food sources are considered.
  3. 2Nutrient intakes are adjusted for energy intake using the residual method [56]
  4. 3Base model; adjusted for age (years) and sex (male/female)
  5. 4Fully-adjusted model; adjusted for age (years), sex (male/female), gastroesophageal reflux disease symptoms (yes/no), body mass index (≤24.9, >24.9 kg/m2), smoking status (never/former/current), smoking intensity and duration (<20, ≥20 pack-years), physical activity (MET) (light/heavy), and education level (illiterate, literate).
  6. 5Reference category
  7. 6The P-value for trend was calculated using the linear regression coefficient for the tertiles of micronutrient intake