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Table 1 Distribution of cases and controls stratified by sex among selected risk factors in a case-control study of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in Iran1

From: Macronutrients, vitamins and minerals intake and risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma: a case-control study in Iran

Variable Male Female P-value2
  Cases Control Cases Control  
Participants, n 18 (32.1) 38 (67.9) 29(33.3) 58(66.7)  
Age3, year 60.0(54.75-67.00) 60.0 (54.25-67.00) 57.0(50.00-70.50) 58.0 (48.75-72.25) 0.17
   ≤58 8(44.4) 17(44.7) 17(58.6) 32(55.2)  
   >58 10(55.6) 21(55.3) 12(41.4) 26(44.8)  
Education, year      
   Illiterate 14(77.8) 25(65.8) 28(96.6) 55(94.8) <0.001
   Literate 4(22.2) 13(34.2) 1(3.4) 3(5.2)  
Monthly family income, US $      
   <300 15 (83.3) 33 (86.8) 28 (96.6) 53 (91.4) 0.14
   ≥300 3 (16.7) 5(13.2) 1 (3.4) 5 (8.6)  
Place of residence      
   Rural 11(61.1) 20(52.6) 22(75.9) 28(48.3)* 0.80
   Urban 7(38.9) 18(47.4) 7(24.1) 30(51.7)*  
Smoking history      
   Never smoker 5(27.8) 17(44.7) 23(79.3) 51(87.9) <0.001
   Ex-smoker, pack year < 10 3(16.7) 3(7.9) 3(10.3) 4(6.9)  
   Ex-smoker, pack year≥10 1(5.5) 11(28.9) 3(10.3) 1(1.7)  
   Current smoker, pack year < 20 3(16.7) 4(10.5) 0(0.0) 1(1.7)  
   Current smoker, pack year ≥20 6(33.3) 3(7.9) 0(0.0) 1(1.7)  
Having symptoms of GERD4 6(33.3) 6(15.8) 10(34.5) 3(5.2)* 0.31
Familial cancer history 1(5.6) 0(0.0) 3(10.3) 0(0.0)* 0.48
Physical activity      
   Light 13(72.2) 21(55.3)* 16(75.9) 35(60.4)* 0.001
   Heavy 5(27.8) 17(44.7)* 7(24.1) 23(39.6)*  
BMI, kg/m 2 19.9(3.1)5 24.8(4.0)* 20.8(3.3) 25.7(4.3)* 0.01
   ≤24.9 16(88.9) 20(52.6)* 24(82.8) 27(46.6)  
   >24.9 2(11.1) 18(47.4)* 5(17.2) 31(53.4)  
NSAIDs use      
   Aspirin 2(11.2) 0(0.0) 1(5.6) 0(0.0) 0.63
   Non-aspirin 3(7.9) 0(0.0) 1(3.4) 0(0.0)  
Food and beverage temperature      
   Hot 15(83.3) 6(15.8)* 17(58.6) 9(15.5)* 0.03
   Warm/cold 3(16.7) 32(84.2)* 12(41.4) 49(84.5)*  
Cooking method      
   Fried/barbecued 8(44.4) 3(7.9)* 6(20.7) 3(5.2)* 0.14
   Boiled 7(38.9) 21(55.3)* 10(34.5) 49(84.5)*  
   Both 3(16.7) 14(36.8)* 13(44.8) 6(10.3)*  
  1. GERD: Gastro-esophageal reflux disease; BMI: Body mass index; NSAIDs: Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
  2. *Statistically significant between case and control groups (p < 0.05)
  3. 1Values are n (%), unless otherwise noted
  4. 2P-values were estimated using chi-square statistics, Fishers' exact test or independent t-test for the difference between genders
  5. 3Median (interquartile range (IQR))
  6. 4Patients who present with the typical GERD symptoms of heartburn and acid regurgitation
  7. 5Mean (SD)