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Table 4 Nutrient intakes and comparisons to nutrient goals for the M20-HEP and M25-HEP models

From: Healthy U.S.-style dietary patterns can be modified to provide increased energy from protein

    HEPa M20-HEPb M25-HEPb
Nutrient Measure Reference Intakes by Populationc   % of Reference   % of Reference   % of Reference
Macronutrients   F 19–30 y; M 51–70 y Intake F
19–30 y
M
51–70 y
Intake F
19–30 y
M
51–70 y
Intake F
19–30 y
M
51–70 y
 Calories, kcal %goal 2000 2001 100% 100% 2001–2003 100% 100% 2002–2005 100% 100%
 Protein, g %RDA 46; 56 92 200% 164% 98–100 213%-217% 175%-179% 125–126 272%-274% 223%-225%
%kcal 10–35   18% 18%   20% 20%   25% 25%
 Carbohydrate, g %RDA 130 259 198% 198% 248–250 191%-192% 191%-192% 228 175% 175%
%kcal 45–65   52% 52%   50% 50%   46% 46%
 Fiber, dietary, g %AI 28 30 108% 108% 30 107% 107% 35 125% 125%
 Total lipid (fat), g %kcal 20–35 71 32% 32% 72–73 32%-33% 32%-33% 70 31% 31%
 Saturated fats, g %kcal  < 10 18 8% 8% 18 8% 8% 17 8% 8%
 Linoleic acid, g %AI 12; 14 20 164% 141% 20 167% 143% 19 158% 136%
 Linolenic acid, g %AI 1.1; 1.6 2.3 212% 146% 2.4 218% 150% 2.4 218% 150%
 Cholesterol, mg mg  < 300 214 75% 75% 241–255 80%-85% 80%-85% 266–272 89%-90% 89%-90%
Minerals
 Calcium, mg %RDA 1000; 1200 1278 128% 107% 1272–1277 127%-128% 106% 1295–1296 130% 108%
 Iron, mg %RDA 18; 8 14 79% 178% 14 78% 175% 16–17 89%-94% 200%-213%
 Magnesium, mg %RDA 310; 420 358 116% 86% 363–366 117%-118% 86%-87% 407 131% 97%
 Phosphorus, mg %RDA 700 1654 237% 237% 1686–1714 241%-245% 241%-245% 1933–1938 276%-277% 276%-277%
 Potassium, mg %AI 2600; 3400 3390 131% 100% 3442–3477 132%-134% 101%-102% 3791–3797 146% 112%
 Sodium, mg %CDRR 2300 1658 72% 72% 1443–1680 63%-73% 63%-73% 1405–1597 65%-69% 65%-69%
 Zinc, mg %RDA 8; 11 13 162% 118% 14 175% 127% 16–17 200%-213% 145%-155%
 Copper, mg %RDA 0.9 1.4 155% 155% 1.4 156% 156% 1.7 189% 189%
 Selenium, μg %RDA 55 113 205% 205% 118–120 215%-218% 215%-218% 132–133 240% 240%
Vitamins
 Vitamin A, μg RAE %RDA 700; 900 898 129% 100% 909–918 130%-131% 101%-102% 908–920 130%-131% 101%-102%
 Vitamin E, mg AT %RDA 15 10 70% 70% 11 71% 71% 11 72% 72%
 Vitamin D, IU %RDA 600 300 52% 52% 314–325 52%-54% 52%-54% 350–354 59% 59%
 Vitamin C, mg %RDA 75; 90 129 172% 144% 129 172% 143% 126 168% 140%
 Thiamin, mg %RDA 1.1; 1.2 1.8 166% 152% 1.7 155% 142% 1.7 155% 142%
 Riboflavin, mg %RDA 1.1; 1.3 2 183% 154% 2 182% 154% 2 182% 154%
 Niacin, mg %RDA 14; 16 23 164% 144% 25 179% 156% 27–28 193% 169%
 Vitamin B-6, mg %RDA 1.3; 1.7 2.2 167% 128% 2.3 177% 135% 2.6 200% 153%
 Vitamin B-12, μg %RDA 2.4 6.2 260% 260% 6.7–7.0 279%-292% 279%-292% 8.1–8.4 338%-342% 338%-342%
 Choline, mg %AI 425; 550 355 86% 67% 380–393 89%-92% 69%-71% 441–446 104% 80%-81%
 Vitamin K, μg %AI 90; 120 140 155% 117% 141–142 157%-158% 118% 142–143 158% 118%
 Folate, μg DFE %RDA 400 513 129% 129% 495–498 124%-125% 124%-125% 573 143% 143%
  1. aHealthy U.S. Style Eating Pattern (HEP); sums may not add up to 100% due to rounding
  2. bModified Healthy U.S. Style Eating Pattern (M-HEP) with 20% energy from protein (M20-HEP) or 25% energy from protein (M25-HEP); sums may not add up to 100% due to rounding
  3. cNutrient Goals for representative populations with a 2,000 kcal energy needs (females ages 19–30 y [F19-30 y], and males ages 51–70 y [M51-70 y]): Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges (AMDR) for macronutrients, Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA) and Adequate Intakes (AI) [2, 24, 25], the 2020–2025 DGA limit for energy from saturated fat [1], the Chronic Disease Risk Reduction (CDRR) level for sodium [25], and the cholesterol limit used in food pattern modeling exercises to support the 2020–2025 DGA[22]