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Table 3 Alcohol consumption and the incidence of low eGFR in males and females

From: Association of alcohol consumption with the incidence of proteinuria and chronic kidney disease: a retrospective cohort study in Japan

  Daily alcohol consumption categories (g of alcohol) P- trend
No  < 23 g 23–46  ≥ 46
Males
 Incidence of CKD, n (%) 228 (3.1) 206 (3.3) 150 (3.5) 83 (4.7)  
 IR per 1000PY 7.9 8.0 8.4 11.5  
 Hazard ratio (95% CI)
  Unadjusted model 1.0 (reference) 0.99 (0.83–1.21) 0.97 (0.79–1.20) 1.32 (1.03–1.70) * .172
  Adjusted model 1 1.0 (reference) 1.02 (0.84–1.23) 0.91 (0.73–1.12) 0.95 (0.73–1.24) .432
  Adjusted model 2 1.0 (reference) 1.03 (0.85–1.24) 0.91 (0.73–1.12) 0.96 (0.73–1.25) .454
  Adjusted model 3 1.0 (reference) 1.03 (0.85–1.24) 0.90 (0.73–1.11) 0.92 (0.71–1.20) .342
Females
 Incidence of CKD, n (%) 120 (3.0) 69 (3.5) 38 (5.0) 28 (7.7)  
 IR per 1000PY 8.3 10.0 13.0 20.1  
 Hazard ratio (95% CI)
 Unadjusted model 1.0 (reference) 1.23 (0.91–1.65) 1.43 (0.99–2.06) 2.22 (1.47–3.36) *  < .001
 Adjusted model 1 1.0 (reference) 1.23 (0.91–1.65) 1.21 (0.83–1.76) * 1.56 (1.01–2.39) * .039
 Adjusted model 2 1.0 (reference) 1.22 (0.91–1.65) 1.19 (0.81–1.76) 1.65 (1.06–2.56) * .030
 Adjusted model 3 1.0 (reference) 1.23 (0.91–1.65) 1.21 (0.83–1.79) 1.62 (1.04–2.53) * .039
  1. PY person-years, CI confidence interval
  2. Multivariate model 1 adjusted for age (years) and eGFR (mL/min/1.73 m2) at baseline
  3. Model 2 adjusted for the covariates in model 1, body mass index (BMI) (kg/m2), and smoking status (never/former and current smokers)
  4. Model 3 adjusted for the covariates in model 2, and current treatment for comorbidities (hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes mellitus, and cardiovascular disease)
  5. *P < .05
  6. P-trend was derived from general linear models by treating alcohol consumption as a continuous linear term