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Table 2 Alcohol consumption and the incidence of proteinuria in males and females

From: Association of alcohol consumption with the incidence of proteinuria and chronic kidney disease: a retrospective cohort study in Japan

  Daily alcohol consumption categories (g of alcohol) P-trend
No  < 23 g 23–46  ≥ 46
Males
 Incidence of proteinuria, n (%) 744 (10.1) 612 (9.7) 434 (10.2) 203 (11.5)  
 IR per 1000PY 26.7 24.7 25.3 29.8  
 Hazard ratio (95% CI)
  Unadjusted model 1.0 (reference) 0.92 (0.83–1.02) 0.93 (0.83–1.05) 1.10 (0.94–1.28) .852
  Adjusted model 1 1.0 (reference) 0.94 (0.84–1.04) 0.99 (0.87–1.11) 1.14 (0.98–1.34) .312
  Adjusted model 2 1.0 (reference) 0.97 (0.87–1.08) 1.00 (0.89–1.13) 1.17 (0.99–1.37) .196
  Adjusted model 3 1.0 (reference) 0.97 (0.87–1.08) 0.99 (0.88–1.12) 1.14 (0.97–1.34) .318
Females
 Incidence of proteinuria, n (%) 257 (6.4) 126 (6.5) 44 (5.8) 35 (9.7)  
 IR per 1000PY 18.0 18.7 15.4 26.0  
 Hazard ratio (95% CI)
  Unadjusted model 1.0 (reference) 1.03 (0.84–1.28) 0.86 (0.63–1.19) 1.44 (1.01–2.05) * .369
  Adjusted model 1 1.0 (reference) 1.04 (0.84–1.29) 0.97 (0.71–1.34) 1.66 (1.16–2.37) * .077
  Adjusted model 2 1.0 (reference) 1.04 (0.84–1.29) 0.93 (0.67–1.29) 1.59 (1.10–2.28) * .140
  Adjusted model 3 1.0 (reference) 1.04 (0.84–1.29) 0.93 (0.67–1.30) 1.57 (1.10–2.26) * .144
  1. PY person-years, CI confidence interval
  2. Multivariate model 1 adjusted for age (years) and eGFR (mL/min/1.73 m2) at baseline
  3. Model 2 adjusted for the covariates in model 1, body mass index (BMI) (kg/m2), and smoking status (never/former and current smokers)
  4. Model 3 adjusted for the covariates in model 2, and current treatment for comorbidities (hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes mellitus, and cardiovascular disease)
  5. *P < .05
  6. P-trend was derived from general linear models by treating alcohol consumption as a continuous linear term