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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of 19,902 males and 7086 females

From: Association of alcohol consumption with the incidence of proteinuria and chronic kidney disease: a retrospective cohort study in Japan

  Male Female
Daily alcohol consumption categories (g of alcohol) Daily alcohol consumption categories (g of alcohol)
No  < 23 g 23–46  ≥ 46 No  < 23 g 23–46  ≥ 46
Number 7352 6337 4252 1761 4017 1952 755 362
Age (years) * 39 (31–49) 40 (32–50) 47 (39–57) 48 (40–57) 42 (35–51) 42 (35–50) 46 (39–55) 47 (39–55)
Smoking, n (%) *
Never 2793 (38.0) 2109 (33.3) 757 (17.8) 195 (11.1) 3258 (81.1) 1500 (76.8) 486 (64.4) 239 (66.0)
Former 1714 (23.3) 1862 (29.4) 1580 (37.2) 647 (36.7) 404 (10.1) 278 (14.2) 136 (18.0) 64 (17.7)
Current 2803 (38.1) 2366 (37.3) 1915 (45.0) 919 (52.2) 301 (7.5) 170 (8.7) 127 (16.8) 56 (15.5)
Body mass index, kg/m2* 23.3 (21.1–25.9) 23.1 (21.3–25.3) 23.3 (21.6–25.3) 23.3 (21.5–25.3) 21.1 (19.3–23.6) 21.1 (19.3–23.4) 21.6 (19.8–24.1) 21.9 (19.8–24.3)
Systolic BP, mmHg * 119 (109–130) 119 (110–130) 120 (110–132) 121 (111–132) 112 (102–125) 112 (102–124) 112 (102–125) 115 (104–126)
Diastolic BP, mmHg * 72 (65–81) 73 (66–81) 75 (67–84) 76 (67–84) 68 (61–76) 68 (61–76) 68 (61–77) 70 (61–77)
Uric acid, mg/dL 5.8 (4.9–6.7) 5.8 (5.0–6.7) 5.9 (5.0–6.7) 5.9 (5.0–6.7) 4.5 (3.8–5.5) 4.6 (3.8–5.5) 4.4 (3.7–5.4) 4.5 (3.8–5.3)
Total cholesterol, mg/dL * 196 (173–222) 197 (175–221) 203 (182–226) 205 (183–227) 199 (178–225) 199 (176–223) 202 (179–228) 202 (180–230)
Triglyceride, mg/dL * 96 (66–142) 96 (66–142) 102 (71–152) 109 (74–171) 70 (51–98) 68 (51–95) 76 (59–105) 84 (61–127)
Hemoglobin A1c, % * 5.4 (5.2–5.7) 5.4 (5.2–5.6) 5.4 (5.2–5.7) 5.4 (5.2–5.7) 5.4 (5.2–5.7) 5.4 (5.2–5.6) 5.4 (5.2–5.6) 5.4 (5.2–5.7)
eGFR, mL/min/1.73 m2* 87 (77–97) 86 (76–96) 83 (75–94) 85 (76–96) 75 (68–84) 76 (68–84) 73 (67–82) 76 (69–84)
Current treatments
 Hypertension, n (%) * 426 (5.8) 500
(7.9)
611 (14.4) 306 (17.4) 188 (4.7) 95 (4.9) 77 (10.2) 42 (11.6)
Dyslipidemia, n (%) * 242 (3.3) 275 (4.3) 192 (4.5) 84 (4.8) 147 (3.7) 63 (3.2) 43 (5.7) 26 (7.2)
Diabetes mellitus, n (%) * 210 (2.9) 176 (2.8) 146 (3.4) 69 (3.9) 50 (1.2) 19 (1.0) 12 (1.6) 8 (2.2)
CVD, n (%) * 37 (0.5) 29 (0.5) 31 (0.7) 8 (0.5) 11 (0.3) 3 (0.2) 3 (0.4) 1 (0.3)
  1. Continuous data are presented as a median (interquartile range) and categorical data are expressed as a number (proportion)
  2. Abbreviations; BP blood pressure, eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate, CVD cardiovascular disease;
  3. *p < 0.05 among 4 categories of alcohol consumption