Skip to main content

Table 2 Associations between Weight Gain Attempts and Diet Modification Efforts in the Past 12 Months among Male and Female Participants from the 2018 and 2019 International Food Policy Study (N = 42,108)

From: Weight gain attempts and diet modification efforts among adults in five countries: a cross-sectional study

  Overall (N = 42,108) Males n = 20,641 Females n = 21,467
  PRa (95% CI) p PRb (95% CI) p PRb (95% CI) p
Diet modification efforts
  Consume more:c
    Calories 3.51 (3.23–3.81)  < .001 3.25 (2.94–3.59)  < .001 4.05 (3.50–4.70)  < .001
    Protein 1.35 (1.29–1.40)  < .001 1.39 (1.32–1.47)  < .001 1.26 (1.17–1.35)  < .001
    Fiber 1.15 (1.10–1.21)  < .001 1.19 (1.12–1.26)  < .001 1.10 (1.02–1.18) .015
    Fruits and vegetables 1.07 (1.03–1.11)  < .001 1.12 (1.07–1.17)  < .001 1.01 (0.95–1.07) .834
    Whole grains 1.17 (1.12–1.23)  < .001 1.23 (1.15–1.30)  < .001 1.08 (0.99–1.17) .071
    Dairy products 1.58 (1.47–1.70)  < .001 1.61 (1.48–1.75)  < .001 1.47 (1.30–1.66)  < .001
    All meats 1.76 (1.65–1.87)  < .001 1.76 (1.64–1.89)  < .001 1.72 (1.54–1.92)  < .001
    Red meat (e.g., beef) only 1.86 (1.73–2.00)  < .001 1.87 (1.71–2.03)  < .001 1.83 (1.60–2.08)  < .001
    Fats 2.83 (2.58–3.10)  < .001 2.71 (2.42–3.03)  < .001 3.03 (2.58–3.55)  < .001
    Sugar/added sugar 2.39 (2.12–2.69)  < .001 2.24 (1.95–2.58)  < .001 2.71 (2.18–3.36)  < .001
    Salt/sodium 2.16 (1.92–2.43)  < .001 2.05 (1.78–2.36)  < .001 2.40 (1.94–2.96)  < .001
    Processed foods 2.12 (1.91–2.38)  < .001 1.97 (1.74–2.23)  < .001 2.54 (2.06–3.15)  < .001
  1. Note: Analyses included sample weights
  2. Boldface indicates statistical significance p < 0.05
  3. PR = Prevalence ratio, CI = Confidence interval
  4. aAdjusted for age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, body mass index category, country, and survey year
  5. bAdjusted for age, race/ethnicity, education, body mass index category, country, and survey year
  6. cReference group for all diet modification efforts: Consume less; No effort made; “Don't know”