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Table 1 Participant characteristics by AAC groups

From: Dietary fiber and prevalence of abdominal aortic calcification in the United States (from the national health and nutrition examination survey data [2013–2014])

Variables Total No AAC (score = 0) Mild–moderate AAC (0 < score ≤ 6) Severe AAC (score > 6) P value
  (n = 2671) (n = 1880) (n = 550) (n = 241)  
Age, n (%)       < 0.001
  40–49 742 (29.7) 630 (35.2) 104 (20.6) 8 (2.8)  
  50–59 678 (29.2) 536 (32.0) 122 (26.7) 20 (10.0)  
  60–69 674 (23.0) 467 (22.5) 155 (25.4) 52 (22.1)  
   ≥ 70 577 (18.0) 247 (10.3) 169 (27.3) 161 (65.0)  
Sex, n (%)      0.588
  Men 1291 (48.2) 898 (48.1) 278 (50.1) 115 (44.5)  
  Women 1380 (51.8) 982 (51.9) 272 (49.9) 126 (55.5)  
Ethnicity, n (%)      0.022
  Non-Hispanic White 1220 (72.4) 782 (70.6) 279 (76.0) 159 (80.4)  
  Non-Hispanic Black 509 (9.6) 388 (10.4) 92 (8.1) 29 (6.0)  
  Mexican American/Hispanic 605 (11.3) 467 (12.5) 107 (8.9) 31 (6.6)  
  Other 337 (6.6) 243 (6.5) 72 (7.1) 22 (7.0)  
  Body mass index, kg/m2 28.57 (5.51) 28.84 (5.78) 27.98 (4.84) 27.58 (4.22) 0.001
Education, n (%)      0.059
  Less than high school 588 (14.7) 409 (14.0) 119 (14.7) 60 (21.7)  
  Higher than high school 2083 (85.3) 1471 (86.0) 431 (85.3) 181 (78.3)  
Diabetes mellitus, n (%)       < 0.001
  Absence 2071 (82.1) 1515 (84.9) 413 (80.2) 143 (60.9)  
  Presence 600 (17.9) 365 (15.1) 137 (19.8) 98 (39.1)  
Hypertension, n (%)       < 0.001
  Absence 1229 (49.6) 976 (55.5) 209 (39.3) 44 (21.3)  
  Presence 1442 (50.4) 904 (44.5) 341 (60.7) 197 (78.7)  
Smoking, n (%)       < 0.001
  Absence 1439 (54.6) 1083 (58.9) 262 (45.8) 94 (37.7)  
  Presence 1232 (45.4) 797 (41.1) 288 (54.2) 147 (62.3)  
Total cholesterol /High density lipoprotein cholesterol 3.86 (1.37) 3.84 (1.38) 3.98 (1.37) 3.76 (1.20) 0.185
Serum albumin, g/dL 4.25 (0.30) 4.26 (0.30) 4.25 (0.31) 4.20 (0.29) 0.065
Serum creatinine, mg/dL 0.92 (0.39) 0.90 (0.30) 0.95 (0.59) 1.03 (0.50) 0.002
Serum total calcium, mg/dL 9.46 (0.36) 9.44 (0.36) 9.49 (0.36) 9.48 (0.36) 0.361
Serum phosphorus, mg/dL 3.80 (0.56) 3.79 (0.56) 3.77 (0.56) 3.90 (0.58) 0.094
White blood cells, 1000 cells/uL 7.19 (2.23) 7.13 (2.32) 7.32 (1.97) 7.38 (2.03) 0.17
Total 25-hydroxyvitamin D, nmol/L 75.30 (29.50) 74.54 (29.28) 75.34 (29.51) 82.20 (30.75) 0.018
Caloric intake, kcal/day 2014.50 (792.89) 2036.63 (806.06) 2021.58 (782.95) 1790.50 (651.04) 0.014
Dietary fiber, g 17.24 (8.85) 17.65 (9.16) 16.64 (8.08) 15.00 (7.37) 0.004
  1. All values represented are weighted means ± standard error, or counts (weighted prevalence)