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Table 1 Socio-demographic and anthropometric characteristics of Lebanese infants and young children, by age

From: Food consumption patterns and nutrient intakes of infants and young children amidst the nutrition transition: the case of Lebanon

Age group (months) Total 0–5.9 6–11.9 12–23.9 24–47.9 p-value*
Sociodemographic Characteristics n % n % n % n % n %
866 100 103 11.9 148 17.1 222 25.6 393 45.4
Sex
Male 440 50.8 53 51.5 65 43.9 115 51.8 207 52.7 0.326
Female 426 49.2 50 48.5 83 56.1 107 48.2 186 47.3
Governorate
Beirut 80 9.2 12 11.6 14 9.5 11 4.9 43 10.9 0.149
Mount Lebanon 264 30.5 30 29.1 41 27.7 69 31.1 124 31.5
North Lebanon 319 36.8 35 34.0 68 45.9 83 37.4 133 33.8
South and Nabatieh 136 15.6 19 18.4 18 12.2 36 16.2 63 16.0
Bekaa 67 7.8 7 6.8 7 4.7 23 10.4 30 7.6
Household monthly income (Lebanese pounds)a
  < 1,000,000 286 33.0 27 26.2 64 43.2 76 34.2 119 30.3 0.001
1,000,000-2,000,000 271 31.3 44 42.7 30 20.3 61 27.5 136 34.6
> 2,000,000 146 16.9 17 16.5 27 18.2 29 13.1 73 18.6
Do not know / Refused to answer 163 18.8 15 14.6 27 18.2 56 25.2 65 16.5
Crowding Index
< 1 persons/room 119 13.7 16 15.5 26 17.6 30 13.5 47 12.0 0.366
≥ 1 persons/room 747 86.3 87 84.5 122 82.4 192 86.5 346 88.0
Education of mother
Less than elementaryb 25 2.9 1 1.0 5 3.4 6 2.7 13 3.3 0.328
Elementary-secondaryc 653 75.4 72 69.9 107 72.3 169 76.1 305 77.6
College 188 21.7 30 29.1 36 24.3 47 21.2 75 19.1
Education of father
Less than elementaryb 33 3.9 3 2.9 7 4.8 13 5.9 10 2.6 0.532
Elementary-secondaryc 694 81.3 82 80.4 118 80.3 174 79.4 320 82.9
College 127 14.9 17 16.7 22 15.0 32 14.6 56 14.5
Mother employed
Yes 150 17.3 25 24.3 25 16.9 45 20.3 55 14.0 0.049
No 716 82.7 78 75.7 123 83.1 177 79.7 338 86.0
Father employed
Yes 822 95.7 99 96.1 145 98.0 209 94.6 369 95.4 0.440
No 37 4.3 4 3.9 3 2.0 12 5.4 18 4.6
Marital status
Married 856 98.8 103 100.0 148 100.0 221 99.6 384 97.7 0.063
Separated, divorced, or widowed 10 1.2 0 0.0 0 0.0 1 0.4 9 2.3
Anthropometric Characteristics
Height for aged
  Stunted 61 7.1 7 6.8 7 4.7 22 10.1 25 6.4 0.219
  Not stunted 798 92.9 96 93.2 141 95.3 197 89.9 364 93.6
BMI Statuse
  Wasted 17 2.0 4 3.9 8 5.4 4 1.8 1 0.3 < 0.001
  Normal 511 59.5 69 67.0 98 66.2 106 48.4 238 61.2
  At risk of overweight 223 25.9 13 12.6 33 22.3 67 30.6 110 28.3
  Overweight 79 9.2 11 10.7 7 4.7 33 15.1 28 7.2
  Obese 29 3.4 6 5.8 2 1.3 9 4.1 12 3.1
  1. Abbreviations: BMI body mass index, HAZ height-for-age z-score, n sample size, US United States, WHO World Health Organization
  2. *Chi–square test was used for all variables in the table, except for marital status where Fisher’s exact test was used
  3. a1 US dollars = 1, 500 Lebanese pounds
  4. b Less than elementary includes being illiterate, not attending school, or being able to read and write only
  5. c Elementary to secondary includes primary school, intermediate school, high school, or technical diploma
  6. d Stunted if HAZ < -2, not stunted if HAZ ≥ -2
  7. e Anthropometric measurements of children were categorized based on WHO classification