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Table 2 Caffeine consumption (mean ± SE mg/day) of consumers (≥1 time/week) by demographic, lifestyle, and military characteristics

From: Prevalence of caffeine consumers, daily caffeine consumption, and factors associated with caffeine use among active duty United States military personnel

Variable Strata Any Caffeine Coffee Tea Soda Energy Drink Gums & Medications
Group All (n = 23,175) 243.1 ± 1.5 166.6 ± 1.2 18.5 ± 0.4 15.8 ± 0.2 41.0 ± 0.6 1.0 ± 0.2
Gender Men (n = 20,040) 250.7 ± 1.7 171.8 ± 1.5 17.5 ± 0.4 16.5 ± 0.2 43.9 ± 0.7 1.0 ± 0.2
Women (n = 3.135) 194.5 ± 3.0 133.8 ± 2.5 25.2 ± 0.9 11.5 ± 0.5 23.7 ± 1.3 1.2 ± 0.3
p-value (ANOVA) < 0.01 < 0.01 < 0.01 < 0.01 < 0.01 0.60
Age 18–24 years (n = 3615) 203.6 ± 4.6 108.9 ± 2.7 19.5 ± 1.0 17.4 ± 0.7 56.0 ± 2.1 1.8 ± 0.6
25–29 years (n = 4746) 226.1 ± 3.1 147.7 ± 2.4 16.5 ± 0.7 13.1 ± 0.4 47.7 ± 1.5 1.0 ± 0.2
30–39 years (n = 9875) 254.7 ± 2.2 179.2 ± 1.8 17.3 ± 0.5 15.5 ± 0.3 42.0 ± 0.9 0.7 ± 0.2
≥40 years (n = 4821) 264.8 ± 3.4 201.6 ± 2.8 22.0 ± 0.8 18.0 ± 0.5 22.1 ± 1.1 1.1 ± 0.4
p-value (ANOVA/trend) < 0.01/< 0.01 < 0.01/< 0.01 < 0.01/0.03 < 0.01/0.07 < 0.01/0.01 0.15/0.14
Formal Education Some high school/high school graduate (n = 3099) 242.3 ± 4.8 129.3 ± 1.9 20.4 ± 1.3 20.9 ± 0.8 69.7 ± 2.5 1.9 ± 0.4
Some college/Associate’s degree (n = 9836) 243.3 ± 2.4 159.5 ± 1.7 18.1 ± 0.5 16.5 ± 0.4 48.3 ± 1.0 1.0 ± 0.3
Bachelor’s/Graduate degree (n = 10,234) 243.0 ± 2.1 184.8 ± 1.2 18.4 ± 0.5 13.6 ± 0.3 25.4 ± 0.8 0.8 ± 02
p-value (ANOVA/trend) 0.98/0.88 < 0.01/< 0.01 0.10/0.06 < 0.01/< 0.01 < 0.01/< 0.01 0.06/0.02
Race / Ethnicity White (n = 14,827) 263.5 ± 1.9 184.8 ± 1.5 18.0 ± 0.4 17.3 ± 0.3 42.5 ± 0.8 0.8 ± 0.2
Hispanic (n = 3530) 227.7 ± 4.1 151.8 ± 3.0 15.9 ± 0.9 13.5 ± 0.6 45.3 ± 2.0 1.1 ± 0.3
Back (n = 2140) 158.8 ± 3.8 90.9 ± 2.7 21.5 ± 1.0 13.1 ± 0.7 31.1 ± 1.9 2.2 ± 0.5
Other (n = 2678) 217.5 ± 3.9 146.3 ± 3.1 22.0 ± 1.1 12.6 ± 0.6 35.3 ± 1.6 1.3 ± 0.3
p-value (ANOVA) < 0.01 < 0.01 < 0.01 < 0.01 < 0.01 0.06
Body mass index < 25.0 kg/m2 (n = 6629) 215.7 ± 3.0 145.4 ± 2.0 19.2 ± 0.7 15.1 ± 0.4 34.3 ± 1.2 1.6 ± 0.5
25.0–29.9 kg/m2 (n = 12,163) 251.2 ± 2.0 175.7 ± 1.7 17.7 ± 0.5 15.2 ± 0.3 42.0 ± 0.9 0.7 ± 0.1
≥30.0 kg/m2 (n = 3956) 260.5 ± 3.5 172.3 ± 2.9 19.2 ± 0.9 19.1 ± 0.6 48.8 ± 1.5 1.1 ± 0.3
p-value (ANOVA/trend) < 0.01/< 0.01 < 0.01/< 0.01 0.09/0.97 < 0.01/< 0.01 < 0.01/< 0.01 0.03/0.28
Aerobic exercise weekly duration < 90 min/wk. (n = 6120) 235.7 ± 3.0 161.0 ± 2.2 17.8 ± 0.7 16.5 ± 0.4 39.2 ± 1.2 1.1 ± 0.4
90–180 min/wk. (n = 6560) 236.2 ± 2.4 165.3 ± 2.0 17.6 ± 0.6 16.5 ± 0.4 36.3 ± 1.0 0.6 ± 0.1
181–300 min/wk. (n = 5218) 249.1 ± 3.1 173.9 ± 2.5 17.5 ± 0.7 15.1 ± 0.4 42.0 ± 1.4 0.6 ± 0.1
> 300 min/wk. (n = 5277) 254.0 ± 3.9 167.7 ± 2.8 21.5 ± 0.7 14.9 ± 0.5 48.1 ± 1.6 1.8 ± 0.5
p-value (ANOVA/trend) < 0.01/< 0.01 < 0.01/0.01 < 0.01/< 0.01 0.01/< 0.01 < 0.01/< 0.01 0.02/0.15
Resistance training weekly duration ≤45 min/wk. (n = 6650) 250.8 ± 3.0 172.8 ± 2.3 21.1 ± 0.7 20.6 ± 0.5 35.3 ± 1.2 1.0 ± 0.3
46–135 min/wk. (n = 5636) 239.3 ± 2.6 171.2 ± 2.3 18.3 ± 0.7 15.8 ± 0.4 33.5 ± 1.0 0.6 ± 0.1
136–300 min/wk. (n = 5859) 238.5 ± 2.7 166.8 ± 2.2 16.3 ± 0.6 13.5 ± 0.4 41.2 ± 1.2 0.8 ± 0.2
≥301 min/wk. (n = 5030) 242.3 ± 3.9 153.2 ± 2.7 18.0 ± 0.8 12.3 ± 0.4 56.9 ± 1.6 1.8 ± 0.5
p-value (ANOVA/trend) 0.01/0.06 < 0.01/0.01 < 0.01/< 0.01 < 0.01/< 0.01 < 0.01/< 0.01 0.05/0.08
Smoking Never (n = 14,177) 215.5 ± 1.8 148.2 ± 1.4 18.7 ± 0.4 14.6 ± 0.3 33.0 ± 0.7 1.0 ± 0.2
Former user (n = 4475) 278.8 ± 3.4 198.4 ± 2.8 17.5 ± 0.8 15.6 ± 0.5 46.3 ± 1.4 0.9 ± 0.2
Current user (n = 4222) 298.7 ± 4.4 195.3 ± 3.2 19.1 ± 0.9 20.3 ± 0.6 62.7 ± 1.9 1.3 ± 0.5
p-value (ANOVA) < 0.01 < 0.01 0.34 < 0.01 < 0.01 0.70
Smokeless tobacco use Never (n = 17,597) 226.8 ± 1.6 155.8 ± 1.3 18.7 ± 0.4 15.6 ± 0.3 35.8 ± 0.7 1.0 ± 0.2
Former user (n = 1959) 294.5 ± 4.7 213.9 ± 4.1 16.5 ± 1.2 14.9 ± 0.7 48.6 ± 2.1 0.7 ± 0.3
Current user (n = 2938) 301.5 ± 5.4 195.9 ± 3.6 18.9 ± 1.3 18.2 ± 0.7 66.9 ± 2.4 1.6 ± 0.7
p-value (ANOVA) < 0.01 < 0.01 0.20 < 0.01 < 0.01 0.32
Alcohol intake 0 ml/wk. (n = 6175) 218.9 ± 3.1 137.6 ± 2.4 19.5 ± 0.7 17.6 ± 0.5 39.5 ± 1.3 1.1 ± 0.3
0.23–24.85 ml/wk. (n = 5486) 214.8 ± 2.6 149.6 ± 2.2 18.2 ± 0.6 14.6 ± 0.4 29.8 ± 1.1 0.5 ± 0.1
24.86–71.69 ml/wk. (n = 5696) 239.0 ± 2.6 169.2 ± 2.2 17.2 ± 0.7 14.2 ± 0.4 35.3 ± 1.1 0.7 ± 0.2
≥71.70 ml/wk. (n = 5817) 299.2 ± 3.6 211.1 ± 2.6 19.3 ± 0.8 16.7 ± 0.5 45.8 ± 1.5 1.8 ± 0.5
p-value (ANOVA/trend) < 0.01/< 0.01 < 0.01/< 0.01 0.05/0.60 < 0.01/0.17 < 0.01/< 0.01 0.02/0.13
Sleep ≥7 h/night (n = 8530) 221.8 ± 2.1 158.8 ± 1.7 17.3 ± 0.5 14.1 ± 0.3 29.0 ± 0.8 0.1 ± 0.0
5–6 h/night (n = 9110) 263.3 ± 2.4 177.4 ± 2.0 18.8 ± 0.6 17.7 ± 0.4 45.4 ± 1.0 0.2 ± 0.1
< 4 h/night (n = 918) 337.7 ± 11.9 199.4 ± 9.0 27.2 ± 2.6 21.2 ± 1.6 67.4 ± 4.7 6.4 ± 2.8
p-value (ANOVA/trend) < 0.01/< 0.01 < 0.01/< 0.01 < 0.01/< 0.01 < 0.01/< 0.01 < 0.01/< 0.01 < 0.01/< 0.01
Rank Junior enlisted, E1–E4 (n = 1869) 197.4 ± 6.9 103.3 ± 3.8 20.3 ± 1.5 18.3 ± 0.9 53.4 ± 2.9 2.0 ± 1.1
Mid enlisted, E4–E6 (n = 9891) 238.6 ± 2.3 148.0 ± 1.8 18.6 ± 0.6 16.6 ± 0.4 54.2 ± 1.1 1.2 ± 0.2
Senior enlisted, E7–E9 (n = 3971) 270.2 ± 4.2 194.1 ± 3.2 18.0 ± 0.9 17.2 ± 0.6 39.6 ± 1.6 1.3 ± 0.5
Warrant Officer (n = 537) 251.8 ± 8.2 190.0 ± 7.8 17.1 ± 2.0 12.8 ± 1.3 31.9 ± 3.1 0.1 ± 0.1
Junior officer, O1–O3 (n = 3436) 233.6 ± 3.4 179.7 ± 2.8 16.6 ± 0.8 10.5 ± 0.5 26.3 ± 1.4 0.4 ± 0.1
Senior officer, O4–O7 (n = 3471) 257.3 ± 3.1 206.1 ± 3.0 19.9 ± 0.8 16.4 ± 0.6 14.4 ± 0.9 0.4 ± 0.1
p-value (ANOVA) < 0.01 < 0.01 0.09 < 0.01 < 0.01 0.10
Occupational assignment group Combat arms (n = 6451) 260.7 ± 3.0 183.8 ± 2.4 16.8 ± 0.7 14.8 ± 0.4 44.3 ± 1.3 1.0 ± 0.2
Combat support (n = 10,424) 236.8 ± 2.4 158.7 ± 1.8 18.5 ± 0.6 15.9 ± 0.4 42.9 ± 1.0 0.8 ± 0.3
Combat service support (n = 9132) 238.1 ± 2.6 164.1 ± 2.1 19.6 ± 0.6 16.5 ± 0.4 36.6 ± 1.2 1.3 ± 0.3
p-value (ANOVA) < 0.01 < 0.01 0.01 0.02 < 0.01 0.44
Service branch Air Force (n = 8443) 215.0 ± 2.3 145.2 ± 1.7 17.7 ± 0.6 16.0 ± 0.4 35.9 ± 1.0 0.8 ± 0.3
Army (n = 6907) 251.5 ± 2.9 173.6 ± 2.3 18.6 ± 0.7 15.5 ± 0.6 42.0 ± 1.2 1.3 ± 0.3
Marine Corps (n = 2707) 269.7 ± 5.2 172.6 ± 3.9 16.7 ± 1.1 16.4 ± 0.5 63.7 ± 2.5 1.3 ± 0.4
Navy (n = 5118) 263.9 ± 3.0 189.4 ± 2.6 20.7 ± 0.7 15.8 ± 0.2 36.3 ± 1.2 1.0 ± 0.2
p-value (ANOVA) < 0.01 < 0.01 < 0.01 0.36 < 0.01 0.58
  1. Abbreviation: ANOVA analysis of variance