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Table 1 Prevalence (% ± SE) of reported caffeine consumption (≥1 time/week) in military personnel by demographic, lifestyle, and military characteristics

From: Prevalence of caffeine consumers, daily caffeine consumption, and factors associated with caffeine use among active duty United States military personnel

Variable Strata Any Caffeine Coffee Tea Soda Energy Drink Gums & Medications
Cohort All (n = 26,680) 86.9 ± 0.2 68.1 ± 0.3 29.2 ± 0.3 41.9 ± 0.3 29.3 ± 0.3 4.3 ± 0.1
Gender Men (n = 23,038) 87.0 ± 0.2 68.3 ± 0.3 27.0 ± 0.3 43.1 ± 0.3 31.3 ± 0.3 3.9 ± 0.1
Women (n = 3642) 86.1 ± 0.6 66.9 ± 0.8 43.5 ± 0.8 33.8 ± 0.8 16.8 ± 0.6 6.5 ± 0.4
p-value (chi-square) 0.13 0.10 < 0.01 < 0.01 < 0.01 < 0.01
Age 18–24 years (n = 4660) 77.6 ± 0.6 52.7 ± 0.7 24.9 ± 0.6 40.8 ± 0.7 34.7 ± 0.7 3.5 ± 0.3
25–29 years (n = 5580) 85.1 ± 0.5 66.1 ± 0.6 28.0 ± 0.6 38.6 ± 0.7 34.2 ± 0.6 3.6 ± 0.2
30–39 years (n = 11,030) 89.5 ± 0.3 72.2 ± 0.5 29.3 ± 0.4 42.7 ± 0.5 30.7 ± 0.4 4.7 ± 0.2
≥40 years (n = 5275) 91.4 ± 0.4 75.1 ± 0.6 34.0 ± 0.7 44.8 ± 0.7 17.3 ± 0.5 4.8 ± 0.3
p-value (chi square/trend) < 0.01/< 0.01 < 0.01/< 0.01 < 0.01/< 0.01 < 0.01/< 0.01 < 0.01/< 0.01 < 0.01/< 0.01
Formal Education Some high school/High school graduate (n = 3879) 79.9 ± 0.6 55.0 ± 0.8 22.9 ± 0.7 45.0 ± 0.8 38.8 ± 0.8 4.1 ± 0.3
Some college/Associate’s degree (n = 11,378) 86.4 ± 0.3 67.1 ± 0.4 28.2 ± 0.4 43.1 ± 0.5 35.1 ± 0.5 4.8 ± 0.2
Bachelor’s/Graduate degree (n = 11,417) 89.6 ± 0.3 73.5 ± 0.4 32.3 ± 0.4 39.6 ± 0.5 20.3 ± 0.4 3.8 ± 0.2
p-value (chi square/trend) < 0.01/< 0.01 < 0.01/< 0.01 < 0.01/< 0.01 < 0.01/< 0.01 < 0.01/< 0.01 < 0.01/0.06
Race / Ethnicity White (n = 16,316) 90.9 ± 0.2 73.0 ± 0.3 29.0 ± 0.4 44.4 ± 0.4 31.4 ± 0.4 4.5 ± 0.2
Hispanic (n = 4227) 83.5 ± 0.6 65.2 ± 0.7 25.2 ± 0.8 39.2 ± 0.8 30.4 ± 0.7 3.6 ± 0.3
Black (n = 2966) 72.2 ± 0.8 46.5 ± 0.9 30.7 ± 0.8 34.4 ± 0.9 18.8 ± 0.7 4.6 ± 0.4
Other (n = 3171) 84.5 ± 0.6 67.1 ± 0.8 34.6 ± 0.8 39.4 ± 0.9 27.1 ± 0.8 3.7 ± 0.3
p-value (chi-square) < 0.01 < 0.01 < 0.01 < 0.01 < 0.01 0.03
Body mass index < 25.0 kg/m2 (n = 7856) 84.4 ± 0.4 64.9 ± 0.5 30.6 ± 0.5 39.4 ± 0.6 24.7 ± 0.5 3.5 ± 0.2
25.0–29.9 kg/m2 (n = 13,897) 87.5 ± 0.3 69.4 ± 0.4 28.3 ± 0.4 41.2 ± 0.4 30.3 ± 0.4 4.2 ± 0.2
≥30.0 kg/m2 (n = 4424) 89.4 ± 0.5 69.6 ± 0.7 29.3 ± 0.7 48.4 ± 0.8 34.3 ± 0.7 5.9 ± 0.3
p-value (chi square/trend) < 0.01/< 0.01 < 0.01/< 0.01 < 0.01/0.30 < 0.01/< 0.01 < 0.01/< 0.01 < 0.01/< 0.01
Aerobic exercise duration ≤90 min/wk. (n = 7286) 84.0 ± 0.4 66.5 ± 0.6 27.1 ± 0.5 42.5 ± 0.6 28.3 ± 0.5 4.3 ± 0.2
91–180 min/wk. (n = 7285) 90.0 ± 0.4 71.4 ± 0.5 31.1 ± 0.5 45.7 ± 0.6 28.9 ± 0.5 4.2 ± 0.2
181–300 min/wk. (n = 5869) 88.9 ± 0.4 70.5 ± 0.6 30.1 ± 0.6 42.4 ± 0.6 30.1 ± 0.6 4.0 ± 0.3
≥301 min/wk. (n = 6240) 84.9 + 0.5 65.6 ± 0.6 28.7 ± 0.6 36.2 ± 0.6 30.4 ± 0.6 4.5 ± 0.3
p-value (chi square/trend) < 0.01/0.49 < 0.01/0.62 < 0.01/0.09 < 0.01/< 0.01 0.03/< 0.01 0.57/0.64
Resistance training frequency ≤45 min/wk. (n = 7776) 85.5 ± 0.4 66.4 ± 0.5 30.9 ± 0.5 47.4 ± 0.6 24.2 ± 0.5 4.5 ± 0.2
46–135 min/wk. (n = 6257) 90.1 ± 0.4 71.7 ± 0.6 32.1 ± 0.6 46.0 ± 0.6 26.7 ± 0.6 4.3 ± 0.3
136–300 min/wk. (n = 6581) 89.0 ± 0.4 71.3 ± 0.6 29.3 ± 0.6 39.5 ± 0.6 31.1 ± 0.6 4.2 ± 0.3
≥301 min/wk. (n = 6066) 82.9 ± 0.5 63.1 ± 0.6 24.0 ± 0.5 33.0 ± 0.6 36.8 ± 0.6 4.0 ± 0.3
p-value (chi square/trend) < 0.01/< 0.01 < 0.01/< 0.01 < 0.01/< 0.01 < 0.01/< 0.01 < 0.01/< 0.01 0.46/0.11
Smoking Never (n = 16,706) 84.9 ± 0.3 63.7 ± 0.4 29.7 ± 0.4 39.5 ± 0.4 24.5 ± 0.3 4.0 ± 0.2
Former (n = 4767) 93.9 ± 0.3 79.9 ± 0.6 29.4 ± 0.7 44.1 ± 0.7 35.0 ± 0.7 5.2 ± 0.3
Smoker (n = 4511) 93.6 ± 0.4 77.1 ± 0.6 29.9 ± 0.7 51.7 ± 0.7 43.6 ± 0.7 4.8 ± 0.3
p-value (chi-square) < 0.01 < 0.01 0.88 < 0.01 < 0.01 < 0.01
Smokeless tobacco use Never (n = 20,378) 86.4 ± 0.2 66.1 ± 0.3 30.6 ± 0.3 41.6 ± 0.3 26.2 ± 0.3 4.3 ± 0.1
Former (n = 2047) 95.7 ± 0.4 82.9 ± 0.8 27.1 ± 1.0 43.7 ± 1.1 38.1 ± 1.1 4.8 ± 0.5
Smoker (n = 3114) 94.3 ± 0.4 79.2 ± 0.7 26.4 ± 0.8 48.5 ± 0.9 47.8 ± 0.9 4.6 ± 0.4
p-value (chi-square) < 0.01 < 0.01 < 0.01 < 0.01 < 0.01 0.43
Alcohol intake 0 ml/wk. (n = 8372) 73.8 ± 0.5 50.8 ± 0.5 23.3 ± 0.5 35.1 ± 0.5 23.9 ± 0.5 3.8 ± 0.2
0.23–24.85 ml/wk. (n = 6132) 89.5 ± 0.4 70.2 ± 0.6 31.4 ± 0.6 41.2 ± 0.6 25.3 ± 0.6 3.9 ± 0.2
24.86–71.69 ml/wk. (n = 6108) 93.3 ± 0.3 76.0 ± 0.5 31.5 ± 0.6 45.1 ± 0.6 31.9 ± 0.6 4.4 ± 0.3
≥71.70 ml/wk. (n = 6067) 95.9 ± 0.3 81.9 ± 0.5 32.9 ± 0.6 48.7 ± 0.6 38.3 ± 0.6 5.0 ± 0.3
p-value (chi square/trend) < 0.01/< 0.01 < 0.01/< 0.01 < 0.01/< 0.01 < 0.01/< 0.01 < 0.01/< 0.01 < 0.01/< 0.01
Sleep ≥7 h/night (n = 9702) 87.9 ± 0.3 69.3 ± 0.5 29.0 ± 0.5 40.8 ± 0.5 26.2 ± 0.4 3.3 ± 0.2
5–6 h/night (n = 10,027) 90.9 ± 0.3 71.5 ± 0.5 30.6 ± 0.5 46.7 ± 0.5 34.7 ± 0.5 5.1 ± 0.2
< 4 h/night (n = 1090) 84.2 ± 1.1 65.4 ± 1.4 31.6 ± 1.4 43.7 ± 1.5 35.3 ± 1.4 8.2 ± 0.8
p-value (chi-square/linear trend) < 0.01/0.01 < 0.01/0.48 0.02/< 0.01 < 0.01/< 0.01 < 0.01/< 0.01 < 0.01/< 0.01
Rank Junior enlisted, E1-E4 (n = 2496) 74.9 ± 0.9 49.8 ± 1.0 24.7 ± 0.9 40.5 ± 1.0 33.1 ± 0.9 3.4 ± 0.4
Mid enlisted E5-E6 (n = 11,609) 85.2 ± 0.3 64.5 ± 0.4 27.8 ± 0.4 42.8 ± 0.5 36.4 ± 0.4 4.7 ± 0.2
Senior enlisted E7-E9 (n = 4365) 91.0 ± 0.4 74.4 ± 0.7 28.9 ± 0.7 44.7 ± 0.8 29.6 ± 0.7 4.9 ± 0.3
Warrant officer (n = 576) 93.2 ± 1.0 78.1 ± 1.7 29.7 ± 1.9 39.2 ± 2.0 27.3 ± 1.9 4.7 ± 0.9
Junior officer, O1-O3 (n = 3891) 88.3 ± 0.5 73.6 ± 0.7 31.9 ± 0.7 35.3 ± 0.8 21.7 ± 0.7 3.2 ± 0.3
Senior officer, O4-O7 (n = 3742) 92.8 ± 0.4 77.2 ± 0.7 34.2 ± 0.8 43.7 ± 0.8 12.9 ± 0.5 3.8 ± 0.3
p-value (chi-square) < 0.01 < 0.01 < 0.01 < 0.01 < 0.01 < 0.01
Occupational assignment group Combat arms (n = 6451) 89.0 ± 0.4 72.5 ± 0.6 27.7 ± 0.6 41.4 ± 0.6 31.9 ± 0.6 3.8 ± 0.2
Combat support (n = 10,424) 86.3 ± 0.3 66.2 ± 0.5 29.0 ± 0.4 42.1 ± 0.5 31.1 ± 0.5 4.2 ± 0.2
Combat service support (n = 9132) 86.3 ± 0.4 67.6 ± 0.5 30.6 ± 0.5 42.0 ± 0.5 25.7 ± 0.5 4.6 ± 0.2
p-value (chi-square) < 0.01 < 0.01 < 0.01 0.65 < 0.01 0.04
Service branch Air Force (n = 9788) 86.3 ± 0.3 65.5 ± 0.5 29.7 ± 0.5 43.1 ± 0.5 28.3 ± 0.5 3.9 ± 0.2
Army (n = 7935) 87.0 ± 0.4 69.0 ± 0.5 28.1 ± 0.5 39.8 ± 0.5 29.3 ± 0.5 4.5 ± 0.2
Marine Corps (n = 3194) 84.8 ± 0.6 65.5 ± 0.8 23.8 ± 0.8 40.7 ± 0.9 38.8 ± 0.9 3.6 ± 0.3
Navy (n = 5763) 88.8 ± 0.4 72.8 ± 0.6 33.0 ± 0.6 43.3 ± 0.7 25.9 ± 0.6 5.0 ± 0.3
p-value (chi-square) < 0.01 < 0.01 < 0.01 < 0.01 < 0.01 < 0.01