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Table 2 Association between duration of maternal FA supplementation and occurrence of CHD or ASD

From: Evaluation of the association between maternal folic acid supplementation and the risk of congenital heart disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Folic acid intake Authors (year) Duration CHD OR (95% Cl) ASD OR (95% Cl)
Intake short-term
before pregnancy
Li X et al. (2013) [31] Before pregnancy ≤ 1 month 0.60 (0.31, 1.17) 0.53 (0.27, 1.05)
Mao B et al. (2017) [34] Before pregnancy ≤ 2 months
Intake short-term
after pregnancy
Li X et al. (2013) [31] During pregnancy < 1 month 0.79 (0.42, 1.47) 0.66 (0.41, 1.07)
Mao B et al. (2017) [34] During pregnancy ≤ 3 months
Intake long-term
before pregnancy
Li X et al. (2013) [31] Before pregnancy 1–3 months 0.39 (0.23, 0.68) 0.28 (0.13, 0.58)
Mao B et al. (2017) [34] Before pregnancy > 2 months
Intake long-term
after pregnancy
Li X et al. (2013) [31] During pregnancy > 1 months 0.60 (0.43, 0.83) 0.43 (0.26, 0.70)
Mao B et al. (2017) [34] During pregnancy ≥ 3 months
  1. FA folic acid, CHD congenital heart disease, ASD atrial septal defects