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Table 3 The adjusted associations between daily food insecurity score and energy intake, diet quality, and HEI component scores in the overall sample and in sample stratified by season and by COVID-19 perioda

From: Daily food insecurity is associated with diet quality, but not energy intake, in winter and during COVID-19, among low-income adults

  Allb By season By COVID period
Fallc Winterc Before Covid-19d During Covid-19d
  b
(95% CI)
P-value b
(95% CI)
P-value b
(95% CI)
P-value b
(95% CI)
P-value b
(95% CI)
P-value
N of person-days 324   178   146   214   110  
Total diet
Total energy, kcale -7.58 (-125.50, 110.30) 0.90 2.35 (-144.00, 148.90) 0.98 -39.60 (-216.80, 137.70) 0.66 69.86 (-67.30, 207.00) 0.32 -136.90
(-296.00, 22.10)
0.09
HEI, scoree -2.40
(-4.80, -0.01)
0.05 -1.05
(-3.87, 1.79)
0.47 -7.10
(-11.04, -3.15)
 < 0.001 -2.45
(-6.21, 1.31)
0.20 -3.80
(-6.08, -1.53)
 0.001
Food and food group
Total fruit, cup -0.10
(-0.19, -0.01)
0.02 -0.07
(-0.17, 0.03)
0.17 -0.17
(-0.32, -0.02)
0.03 -0.20
(-0.32, -0.07)
 0.003 0.08
(-0.07, 0.22)
0.30
Whole fruit, cup -0.05
(-0.14, 0.03)
0.23 -0.06
(-0.16, 0.04)
0.28 -0.18
(-0.30, -0.05)
 0.007 -0.16 (-0.28, -0.04)  0.009 0.09
(-0.08, 0.25)
0.31
Total vegetable, cup 0.04
(-0.21, 0.29)
0.78 0.08
(-0.22, 0.37)
0.62 -0.11
(-0.39, 0.17)
0.44 -0.13
(-0.39, 0.13)
0.34 0.23
(-0.03, 0.49)
0.08
Greens and beans, cup -0.05
(-0.11, -0.01)
0.05 -0.05
(-0.10, -0.01)
0.05 -0.07
(-0.15, 0.01)
0.09 -0.07
(-0.13, -0.02)
0.01 -0.07
(-0.14, 0.01)
0.10
Whole grains, oz -0.30
(-0.51, -0.09)
 0.004 -0.16
(-0.37, 0.06)
0.16 -0.57
(-0.99, -0.16)
 0.007 -0.29
(-0.57, -0.01)
0.04 -0.49
(-0.88, -0.09)
0.02
Dairy, cup 0.31
(0.11, 0.51)
 0.002 0.44
(0.14, 0.73)
 0.004 0.09
(-0.32, 0.50)
0.67 0.31
(0.04, 0.58)
0.02 0.18
(-0.03, 0.39)
0.10
Total protein, oz -0.44
(-1.02, 0.15)
0.14 -0.61
(-1.09, -0.14)
0.01 -0.20
(-1.10, 0.70)
0.67 -0.41
(-1.10, 0.29)
0.25 -0.40
(-1.00, 0.20)
0.20
Seafood/plant protein, oz 0.03
(-0.37, 0.42)
0.90 0.08
(-0.37, 0.53)
0.74 -0.03
(-0.41, 0.34)
0.86 0.24
(-0.33, 0.82)
0.41 -0.41
(-0.95, 0.12)
0.13
Refined grains, oz 0.44
(0.14, 0.74)
 0.004 0.17
(-0.19, 0.54)
0.36 1.05
(0.52, 1.59)
 <0.001 0.35
(-0.07, 0.76)
0.10 0.60
(-0.03, 1.24)
0.06
Salt, g 0.12
(-0.08, 0.31)
0.24 0.07
(-0.17, 0.30)
0.57 0.17
(-0.07, 0.41)
0.16 -0.04
(-0.23, 0.14)
0.63 0.34
(0.15, 0.54)
 < 0.001
Added sugars, % of energy -14.13
(-31.69, 3.43)
0.11 -14.30 (-51.68, 23.08) 0.45 1.35
(-55.57, 58.28)
0.96 -17.89
(-41.05, 5.29)
0.13 -5.36
(-38.05, 27.33)
0.75
  1. aCI confidence interval, HEI healthy eating index
  2. bAdjusted for gender, race, employment, poverty status, COVID-19 months, seasons, total energy intake, study weeks, and weekdays
  3. cAdjusted for gender, race, employment, poverty status, COVID-19 months, total energy intake, study weeks, and weekdays
  4. dAdjusted for gender, race, employment, poverty status, seasons, total energy intake, study weeks, and weekdays
  5. eGEE models examining the association of daily FI scores and total energy intake and HEI score were not adjusted for total energy intake