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Table 2 Average daily intake of nutrients and food intake from FFQ1, FFQ2 and dietary recalls

From: Reproducibility and relative validity of a food frequency questionnaire for a diet-related study in a rural Chinese population

Items a,b FFQ1 a,b FFQ2 a,b DRs a,b
Energy (MJ) 10.6 (3.2) 9.7 (2.7) 9.6 (4.6)
Protein (g) 71.7 (22.5) 65.1 (18.5) 65.2 (64.8)
Fat (g) 38.4 (18.5) 33.3 (13.3) 38.4 (38.9)
Fiber (g) 12.6 (4.9) 11.3 (4.2) 11.0 (423.0)
Carbohydrate(g) 473.0 (154.6) 438.3 (128.5) 423.9 (10.7)
Carotene (μg) 1098.9 (675.3) c 1077.7 (579.3) 1256.2 (1251.8)
Retinol equivalent (μg) 299.5 (147.7) c, d 249.9 (122.3) 329.5 (330.4)
Thiamine (mg) 1.6 (0.5) 1.4 (0.5) 1.4 (1.4)
Riboflavin (mg) 0.7 (0.2) 0.6 (0.2) 0.7 (0.7)
Niacin (mg) 21.8 (7.1) 19.6 (5.6) 19.3 (19.1)
Vitamin C (mg) 45.9 (31.0) 37.0 (26.5) 54.1 (53.6)
Vitamin E (mg) 10.6 (5.4) 9.2 (4.1) 8.2 (7.9)
Calcium (mg) 238.2 (98.0) d 204.1 (74.5) 203.7 (201.9)
Iron (mg) 27.6 (8.2) 24.8 (6.4) 23.0 (23.0)
Zinc (mg) 10.8 (3.6) 9.9 (3.1) 10.2 (10.1)
Selenium (mg) 19.5 (8.3) 17.2 (6.3) 20.2 (20.0)
Eggs (g) 22.7 (23.8) 21.2 (31.0) 16.9 (12.8)
Red meat(g) 43.5 (24.9) 39.4 (32.9) 59.3 (15.4)
White meat (g) 2.2 (4.0) c 2.3 (3.3) 4.7 (8.2)
Soy products (g) 30.3 (30.6) 32.4 (32.2) 23.1 (16.0)
Fresh vegetables (g) 106.2 (93.2) 95.2 (77.0) 100.9 (23.2)
Processed vegetables (g) 14.1 (18.9) 12.4 (15.2) 20.3 (21.5)
Fruits (g) 49.6 (49.2) c 52.3 (54.7) 21.7 (15.7)
Nuts and seeds (g) 15.0 (15.7) 14.4 (21.8) 11.1 (5.1)
Cereals (g) 359.1 (107.9) 355.0 (86.9) 337.5 (71.5)
Tuber crops (g) 28.1 (40.1) c, d 21.7 (29.5) 16.9 (23.9)
  1. aAverage daily intake of nutrients and food: mean and standard deviation (S.D.)
  2. bAbbreviation: FFQ1, the first survey of food frequency questionnaire; FFQ2, the second survey of food frequency questionnaire; DRs, two three-day dietary recalls;
  3. cDifferent from DRs, comparing average daily intake, Paired Wilcoxon Rank Test, P < 0.05
  4. dDifferent from FFQ2, comparing average daily intake, Paired Wilcoxon Rank Test, P < 0.05