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Table 3 Risk for breast cancer according to quartiles of the Carbohydrate, glycemic index (GI), glycemic load (GL) dietary and carbohydrate quality index (CQI)

From: Dietary carbohydrate quality and risk of breast cancer among women

  OR (95% CI) P Trenda
Quartile 1 Quartile 2 Quartile 3 Quartile 4
Total
 Carbohydrate
  No.of cases/controls (461/495) 121/118 119/120 114/125 107/132  
  Crude 1 0.96 (0.67–1.38) 0.88 (0.62–1.27) 0.79 (0.55–1.13) 0.17
  Model 1b 1 1.05 (0.72–1.53) 0.91 (0.63–1.34) 0.75 (0.52–1.08) 0.10
  Model 2c 1 0.97 (0.65–1.44) 0.85 (0.58–1.25) 0.74 (0.50–1.08) 0.09
 Glycemic index
 No.of cases/controls (461/495) 110/128 106/133 127/117 123/116  
  Crude 1 0.93 (0.65–1.34) 1.22 (0.85–1.75) 1.24 (0.86–1.76) 0.11
  Model 1 1 0.95 (0.65–1.39) 1.33 (0.91–1.92) 1.39 (0.96–2.01) 0.02
  Model 2 1 1.04 (0.69–1.54) 1.34 (0.91–1.97) 1.41 (0.96–2.07) 0.04
 Glycemic load
  No.of cases/controls (452/494) 116/123 114/125 115/124 116/123  
  Crude 1 0.96 (0.67–1.38) 0.98(0.68–1.40) 1.00 (0.69–1.43) 0.97
  Model 1 1 1.02 (0.70–1.50) 1.01 (0.69–1.48) 0.96 (0.67–1.39) 0.85
 Model 2 1 0.95 (0.64–1.42) 0.91 (0.61–1.34) 0.94 (0.64–1.37) 0.71
 CQI
  No.of cases/controls (452/494) 126/113 117/122 113/126 105/134 g
  Crude 1 0.82 (0.58–1.18) 0.87 (0.61–1.24) 0.69 (0.48–0.99) 0.07
  Model 1 1 0.81 (0.56–1.16) 0.81 (0.56–1.15) 0.61 (0.42–0.89) 0.01
  Model 2   0.86 (0.59–1.25) 0.85 (0.59–1.24) 0.63 (0.43–0.94) 0.03
Premenopausal
 Carbohydrate
  No.of cases/controls (300/325) 75/82 80/76 79/77 66/90  
  Crude 1 1.09 (0.70–1.69) 1.02 (0.65–1.59) 0.87 (0.55–1.36) 0.51
  Model 1 1 1.24 (0.77–2.00) 1.05 (0.66–1.67) 0.82 (0.52–1.31) 0.33
  Model 2   1.12 (0.68–1.84) 0.98 (0.61–1.59) 0.82 (0.51–1.33) 0.37
Glycemic index
 No.of cases/controls (300/325) 66/91 74/82 77/79 83/73  
  Crude 1 1.21 (0.75–1.98) 1.47 (0.92–2.34) 1.63 (1.02–2.60) 0.02
  Model 1 1 1.21 (0.74–1.98) 1.58 (0.98–2.53) 1.71 (1.06–2.74) 0.01
  Model 2   1.35 (0.80–2.26) 1.62 (0.98–2.67) 1.85 (1.12–3.07) 0.01
Glycemic load
  No.of cases/controls (300/325) 76/81 71/85 74/82 79/77  
  Crude 1 0.99 (0.62–1.56) 0.97 (0.62–1.51) 1.12 (0.72–1.75) 0.63
  Model 1 1 1.11 (0.68–1.81) 1.04 (0.65–1.65) 1.13 (0.72–1.77) 0.67
  Model 2   1.04 (0.62–1.73) 0.92 (0.57–1.49) 1.14 (0.71–1.81) 0.70
CQI
 No.of cases/controls (300/325) 81/76 76/80 79/77 64/92  
  Crude 1 0.89 (0.57–1.38) 0.95 (0.61–1.47) 0.68 (0.43–1.06) 0.14
  Model 1 1 0.88 (0.56–1.38) 0.92 (0.59–1.44) 0.57 (0.36–0.91) 0.03
  Model 2 1 0.84 (0.53–1.35) 0.94 (0.59–1.49) 0.55 (0.34–0.90) 0.04
Postmenopausal
 Carbohydrate
 No.of cases/controls (152/160) 44/34 37/41 32/46 39/39  
  Crude 1 0.75 (0.40–1.39) 0.54 (0.28–1.03) 0.77 (0.42–1.41) 0.28
  Model 1 1 0.69 (0.36–1.31) 0.51 (0.26–0.98) 0.79 (0.43–1.45) 0.32
  Model 2   0.63 (0.32–1.24) 0.40 (0.19–0.82) 0.77 (0.41–1.46) 0.25
 Glycemic index
 No.of cases/controls (152/160) 39/39 37/41 36/42 40/38  
  Crude 1 0.80 (0.42–1.52) 0.80 (0.42–1.52) 1.04 (0.56–1.91) 0.86
  Model 1 1 0.83 (0.43–1.58) 0.83 (0.43–1.59) 1.05 (0.57–1.94) 0.82
  Model 2 1 0.89 (0.45–1.75) 0.86 (0.43–1.71) 1.01 (0.53–1.91) 0.97
Glycemic load
 No.of cases/controls (152/160) 41/37 40/38 37/41 34/44  
  crude 1 0.85 (0.46–1.60) 0.88 (0.47–1.64) 0.79 (0.42–1.48) 0.50
  Model 1 1 0.82 (0.43–1.57) 0.89 (0.46–1.70) 0.78 (0.41–1.46) 0.51
  Model 2 1 0.74 (0.37–1.47) 0.78 (0.39–1.54) 0.73 (0.38–1.40) 0.40
CQI
  No.of cases/controls (152/160) 43/35 40/38 31/47 38/40  
  Crude 1 0.95 (0.51–1.77) 0.52 (0.26–1.02) 0.82 (0.45–1.51) 0.28
  Model 1 1 0.96 (0.51–1.78) 0.52 (0.26–1.02) 0.83 (0.45–1.53) 0.29
  Model 2   1.03 (0.53–1.99) 0.59 (0.29–1.20) 0.87 (0.46–1.66) 0.41
  1. aTrend based on median values of each quartile
  2. bModel 1: Adjusted for age, energy and residential place
  3. cModel 2: further adjusted for oral contraceptive use, parity, marital status, family history of breast cancer, BMI (continuous), and physical activity