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Table 2 Baseline nutrient and food group intake by quartiles of energy-adjusted glycemic index (GI) of participants

From: Dietary carbohydrate quality and risk of breast cancer among women

  quartiles of energy-adjusted glycemic index
1 2 3 4 P-value a
Dietary GI (units/day) 48.5 ± 3.2 54.8 ± 1.3 59.7 ± 1.4 66.8 ± 3.7 < 0.001
Dietary GL (units/day) 215.7 ± 60.0 245.6 ± 55.5 248.7 ± 56.1 274.3 ± 73.2 < 0.001
Total carbohydrate (g/day) 442.3 ± 114.2 447.2 ± 102.4 416.0 ± 93.8 411.4 ± 107.0 < 0.001
Solid carbohydrates (g/day) 427.8 ± 169.4 429.6 ± 167.4 405.4 ± 148.3 389.5 ± 162.5 0.01
Liquid carbohydrates (g/day) 17.0 ± 21.2 17.7 ± 21.5 15.0 ± 21.1 41.8 ± 19.0 0.32
CQI scores 15.2 ± 2.3 13.2 ± 2.9 11.5 ± 2.5 8.7 ± 2.4 < 0.001
Energy (kcal/day) 2815.8 ± 1102.5 2796.9 ± 1017.5 2830.9 ± 1023.9 2739.7 ± 1076.5 0.79
Fiber (g/day) 47.2 ± 13.8 42.0 ± 12.3 33.8 ± 9.5 27.7 ± 9.1 < 0.001
Protein (g/day) 94.0 ± 36.1 83.6 ± 21.8 78.7 ± 22.9 75.5 ± 22.4 < 0.001
Fat (g/day) 126.8 ± 40.7 119.4 ± 38.1 125.4 ± 38.9 120.7 ± 43.8 0.13
Saturated fats (g/day) 49.8 ± 24.2 47.0 ± 21.1 50.0 ± 21.9 48.6 ± 23.8 0.46
Fruits (g/day) 828.9 ± 450.4 661.2 ± 327.5 501.2 ± 254.5 358.8 ± 218.1 < 0.001
Vegetables (g/day) 479.0 ± 273.6 381.5 ± 222.1 305.0 ± 176.7 257.6 ± 154.0 < 0.001
Red meat (g/day) 15.0 ± 14.0 16.2 ± 31.3 14.9 ± 20.6 15.8 ± 26.3 0.87
High fat dairy (g/day) 248.6 ± 165.1 222.5 ± 153.1 210.5 ± 172.4 169.0 ± 144.7 < 0.001
Low fat dairy (g/day) 121.4 ± 216.7 54.7 ± 102.1 47.8 ± 87.4 40.8 ± 90.9 < 0.001
Potatoes (g/day) 20.4 ± 25.0 24.2 ± 51.2 25.0 ± 24.2 25.0 ± 24.2 0.59
Rice (g/day) 105.9 ± 79.9 167.7 ± 90.8 221.5 ± 108.9 351.3 ± 170.4 < 0.001
Sugar (g/day) 26.3 ± 28.5 29.2 ± 23.3 31.4 ± 25.0 31.8 ± 24.8 0.07
Soft drinks (g/day) 56.5 ± 112.0 84.1 ± 143.0 68.1 ± 162.6 80.2 ± 128.0 0.12
Sweet desert (g/day) 10.6 ± 14.1 13.8 ± 21.2 12.4 ± 20.8 10.4 ± 19.4 0.17
Legumes (g/day) 71.4 ± 89.4 53.6 ± 82.5 40.6 ± 33.9 36.2 ± 32.8 < 0.001
Vitamin B6 (mg/d) 2.9 ± 0.94 2.4 ± 0.73 2.0 ± 0.55 1.7 ± 0.55 < 0.001
Folate (mcg/d) 478.9 ± 170.0 406.4 ± 148.8 338.7 ± 90.2 290.0 ± 90.7 < 0.001
Vitamin B12 (mcg/d) 6.07 ± 4.1 4.9 ± 3.4 4.0 ± 2.3 3.4 ± 2.2 < 0.001
Vitamin C (mcg/d) 376.8 ± 165.8 307.4 ± 147.2 233.7 ± 92.0 179.6 ± 90.5 < 0.001
Vitamin D (mcg/d) 3.9 ± 4.0 2.8 ± 3.2 2.5 ± 2.4 2.3 ± 2.6 < 0.001
  1. aAll value were adjusted for energy, except for dietary energy intake, by using ANCOVA