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Table 3 Multivariable adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for incident type 2 diabetes according to changes in subtypes of individual dairy products consumption

From: Changes in dairy product consumption and subsequent type 2 diabetes among individuals with prediabetes: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study

  Changes in total dairy product consumption P for trend
Decrease Relatively stable Increase
Low-fat milk > 0.10 ±0.10 > 0.10  
 Median change −0.32 0.00 0.41  
 Case/total 50/140 68/265 43/234  
 Age-adjusted 1.52 (0.97 to 2.39) 1.00 0.63 (0.41 to 0.98) < 0.001
 Model 1 1.57 (0.98 to 2.51) 1.00 0.59 (0.38 to 0.93) < 0.001
 Model 2 1.52 (0.95 to 2.45) 1.00 0.59 (0.37 to 0.92) < 0.001
High-fat milk > 0.10 ±0.10 > 0.10  
 Median change −0.41 0.00 0.28  
 Case/total 72/244 62/272 27/123  
 Age-adjusted 1.48 (0.99 to 2.22) 1.00 1.07 (0.63 to 1.81) 0.106
 Model 1 1.49 (0.98 to 2.27) 1.00 1.18 (0.69 to 2.02) 0.204
 Model 2 1.57 (1.02 to 2.41) 1.00 1.21 (0.70 to 2.07) 0.163
High-fat yogurt > 0.10 ±0.10 > 0.10  
 Median change −0.41 0.00 0.27  
 Case/total 38/192 65/253 58/194  
 Age-adjusted 0.71 (0.45 to 1.12) 1.00 1.28 (0.84 to 1.96) 0.015
 Model 1 0.77 (0.47 to 1.23) 1.00 1.36 (0.87 to 2.11) 0.022
 Model 2 0.75 (0.46 to 1.23) 1.00 1.35 (0.86 to 2.10) 0.023
Low-fat yogurt > 0.20 ±0.20 > 0.20  
 Median change −0.54 0.00 0.54  
 Case/total 59/276 74/274 28/121  
 Age-adjusted 1.13 (0.75 to 1.69) 1.00 0.63 (0.39 to 1.05) 0.038
 Model 1 1.16 (0.75 to 1.78) 1.00 0.57 (0.34 to 0.96) 0.013
 Model 2 1.15 (0.74 to 1.78) 1.00 0.55 (0.33 to 0.93) 0.011
Regular cheese > 0.10 ±0.10 > 0.10  
 Median change −0.50 0.00 0.50  
 Case/total 37/174 70/268 54/197  
 Age-adjusted 0.87 (0.57 to 1.34) 1.00 0.69 (0.42 to 1.12) 0.135
 Model 1 0.85 (0.55 to 1.32) 1.00 0.69 (0.42 to 1.15) 0.157
 Model 2 0.86 (0.55 to 1.34) 1.00 0.72 (0.43 to 1.18) 0.194
Cream cheese > 0.01 ±0.01 > 0.01  
 Median change −0.08 0.00 0.08  
 Case/total 70/271 45/166 46/202  
 Age-adjusted 1.16 (0.74 to 1.81) 1.00 0.96 (0.62 to 1.49) 0.461
 Model 1 1.25 (0.78 to 1.98) 1.00 1.02 (0.65 to 1.60) 0.455
 Model 2 1.24 (0.77 to 1.97) 1.00 1.03 (0.65 to 1.63) 0.489
Ice cream > 0.05 ±0.05 > 0.05  
 Median change −0.11 0.00 0.11  
 Case/total 37/142 94/349 30/148  
 Age-adjusted 1.03 (0.66 to 1.62) 1.00 0.74 (0.46 to 1.18) 0.232
 Model 1 1.07 (0.67 to 1.73) 1.00 0.75 (0.46 to 1.23) 0.219
 Model 2 1.05 (0.65 to 1.69) 1.00 0.77 (0.47 to 1.26) 0.292
  1. Model 1: adjusted for age, sex, physical activity, change in body mass index, family history of diabetes, and total energy intake
  2. Model 2: model 1 plus whole-grain intake, and energy from protein and carbohydrate