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Table 2 Multivariable adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for incident type 2 diabetes according to changes in total, low-fat, and high-fat dairy consumption

From: Changes in dairy product consumption and subsequent type 2 diabetes among individuals with prediabetes: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study

  Changes in total dairy product consumption P for trend
Decrease Relatively stable Increase
Total dairy > 0.50 ±0.50 > 0.50  
 Median change −1.15 − 0.04 1.07  
 Case/total 69/222 55/240 37/177  
 Age-adjusted OR 1.52 (1.00 to 2.29) 1.00 0.62 (0.55 to 1.42) 0.014
 Model 1 OR 1.56 (1.02 to 2.39) 1.00 0.93 (0.58 to 1.51) 0.020
 Model 2 OR 1.56 (1.02 to 2.41) 1.00 0.85 (0.52 to 1.39) 0.009
Low fat dairy > 0.50 ±0.50 > 0.50  
 Median change −1.05 0.00 1.05  
 Case/total 49/172 77/280 35/187  
 Age-adjusted OR 1.06 (0.69 to 1.63) 1.00 0.58 (0.37 to 0.92) 0.021
 Model 1 OR 1.05 (0.67 to 1.64) 1.00 0.57 (0.36 to 0.91) 0.021
 Model 2 OR 1.04 (0.65 to 1.65) 1.00 0.56 (0.35 to 0.90) 0.028
High fat dairy > 0.20 ±0.20 > 0.20  
 Median change −0.73 0.00 0.53  
 Case/total 63/260 54/213 44/166  
 Age-adjusted OR 0.98 (0.64 to 1.50) 1.00 1.20 (0.75 to 1.92) 0.408
 Model 1 OR 1.00 (0.64 to 1.57) 1.00 1.35 (0.82 to 2.19) 0.258
 Model 2 OR 1.01 (0.62 to 1.58) 1.00 1.36 (0.83 to 2.23) 0.266
  1. Model 1: adjusted for age, sex, physical activity, change in body mass index, family history of diabetes, and total energy intake
  2. Model 2: model 1 plus whole-grain intake and energy from protein and carbohydrate