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Table 1 Adjusted characteristics of participants with prediabetes according to 3-y changes in total dairy consumption

From: Changes in dairy product consumption and subsequent type 2 diabetes among individuals with prediabetes: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study

  Changes in total dairy product consumption P-trend
Decrease Relatively stable Increase
Initial dairy intake (serving/d) 3.2 (1.1) 2.1 (1.1) 1.8 (1.2)  
Change in dairy intake (serving/d) −1.44 (0.85) − 0.02 (0.90) 1.41 (1.00)  
Age (age) 47.4 (11.1) 47.8 (11.8) 46.7 (11.2) 0.552
Female (%) 54.1 50.8 45.8 0.080
Initial body mass index (kg/m2) 29.1 (4.9) 29.2 (4.9) 28.7 (4.7) 0.275
Change in body mass index 0.036 (1.4) 0.297 (1.9) 0.223 (1.9) 0.331
Weight change 0.60 (4.03) 1.08 (4.18) 0.83 (4.25) 0.596
Current smoker (%) 5.9 8.8 8.5 0.114
Hypertension (%) 19.8 19.2 19.2 0.832
Family history of diabetes (%) 13.5 10.8 18.1 0.566
Physical activity (MET-min/wk) 429 (54) 394 (51) 403 (60) 0.627
Initial total energy intake (kcal/d) 2203 (710) 2353 (713) 2544 (718) < 0.001
Change in total energy intake (kcal/d) 340 (1198) −52 (901) − 248 (1118) < 0.001
Carbohydrate (% of total energy) 57.6 (6.4) 58.6 (6.2) 60.4 (6.6) < 0.001
Fat (% of total energy) 30.6 (6.2) 29.9 (6.2) 28.3 (6.6) < 0.001
Saturated fatty acids (% of total energy) 10.4 (2.4) 9.3 (2.7) 8.9 (3.4) < 0.001
Monounsaturated fatty acids (% of total energy) 10.1 (3.0) 9.9 (3.5) 9.6 (2.8) 0.100
Polyunsaturated fatty acids (% of total energy) 5.8 (1.8) 6.1 (1.8) 6.0 (1.9) 0.378
Protein (% of total energy) 15.2 (2.7) 14.9 (2.7) 14.7 (2.6) 0.026
Initial low-fat dairy intake (serving/d) 2.2 (0.8) 1.5 (0.9) 1.3 (0.9) < 0.001
Change in low-fat dairy intake (serving/d) −0.80 (0.92) 0.17 (1.00) 0.83 (1.00) < 0.001
Initial high-fat dairy intake (serving/d) 1.01 (0.89) 0.62 (0.96) 0.53 (0.56) < 0.001
Change in high-fat dairy intake (serving/d) −0.53 (0.83) − 0.19 (0.79) 0.33 (0.79) < 0.001
Fruit (serving/d) 2.8 (2.1) 2.5 (2.2) 2.6 (2.0) 0.556
Change in fruit (serving/d) −0.55 (2.45) 0.05 (2.41) −0.09 (2.42) 0.044
Red and processed meat (serving/d) 0.59 (0.57) 0.66 (0.57) 0.61 (0.57) 0.654
Change in red and processed meat (serving/d) −0.05 (0.74) −0.06 (0.73) 0.07 (0.77) 0.199
Whole grains (serving/d) 1.7 (2.6) 2.1 (2.5) 2.3 (2.5) 0.028
Change in whole grains (serving/d) 0.75 (2.66) 1.48 (2.61) 0.48 (2.65) 0.741
Nuts (serving/d) 0.52 (0.78) 0.53 (0.78) 0.56 (0.78) 0.665
Change in nuts (serving/d) 0.06 (1.03) 0.89 (1.02) 0.10 (1.01) 0.870
Legumes (serving/d) 0.42 (0.46) 0.50 (0.40) 0.53 (0.41) 0.057
Change in legumes (serving/d) 0.02 (0.32) −0.06 (0.35) −0.02 (0.49) 0.348
  1. Values are mean (SD) or percentage and adjusted for age (except for age). Dietary characteristics are additionally adjusted for energy intake (except for total energy intake)