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Table 3 Prospective association between vitamin K intake and echocardiographic measurements in 427 participants

From: High vitamin K status is prospectively associated with decreased left ventricular mass in women: the Hoorn Study

  Quartiles of vitamin K intake
  Quartile 1a Quartile 2 Quartile 3 Quartile 4 P-trend
n 106 107 107 107  
LVMI (g/m2.7)b 42.9±12.4 42.1 ±10.9 40.2±10.9 44.4±13.0  
Total vitamin K (mg/day) Ref -2.3 (-5.4; 0.8) -3.5 (-6.7; -0.3) -0.7 (-4.1; 2.6) 0.54
Vitamin K1 Ref 0.1 (-3.1; 3.1) -3.8 (-7.0; -0.6) 0.3 (-2.9; 3.6) 0.57
Vitamin K2 Ref -1.4 (-4.8; 2.1) -0.6 (-4.2; 2.9) -0.6 (-4.7; 3.5) 0.88
Long-chain Ref -0.1 (-3.4; 3.3) -2.2 (-5.5; 1.1) -0.9 (-5.0; 3.1) 0.32
Short-chain Ref -3.0 (-6.3; 0.3) -1.7 (-5.4; 1.9) -0.2 (-4.5; 4.1) 0.88
LVEF (%)b 52.2±9.8 53.4±9.5 54.3±11.1 51.2±10.4  
Total vitamin K (mg/day) Ref -0.3 (-3.3; 2.6) -0.7 (-3.8; 2.3) -1.6 (-4.4; 2.0) 0.29
Vitamin K1 Ref 1.3 (-1.7; 4.3) 1.2 (-2.1; 4.4) -1.2 (-4.3; 2.1) 0.43
Vitamin K2 Ref -1.3 (-4.6; 2.0) -1.8 (-5.2; 1.5) 2.1 (-1.9; 6.1) 0.52
Long-chain Ref -1.1 (-4.3; 2.1) -2.6 (-5.7; 0.5) -1.2 (-4.9; 2.6) 0.31
Short-chain Ref -0.3 (-3.5; 2.9) 2.4 (-1.1; 5.9) 1.2 (-3.0; 5.5) 0.29
LAVI (mL/m2)b 25.3±11.7 26.0±11.7 26.6±14.0 26.6±12.1  
Total vitamin K (mg/day) Ref -0.2 (-3.1; 2.7) -0.6 (-3.7; 2.5) -1.6 (-4.7; 1.5) 0.29
Vitamin K1 Ref 0.2 (-2.7; 3.2) -1.3 (-4.3; 1.8) -1.1 (-4.2; 2.0) 0.33
Vitamin K2 Ref 1.8 (-1.3; 5.0) 1.8 (-1.5; 5.0) 1.5 (-2.3; 5.3) 0.46
Long-chain Ref 2.7 (-0.2; 5.6) 0.8 (-2.2; 3.8) 2.1 (-1.4; 5.6) 0.48
Short-chain Ref 3.1 (0.0; 6.2) 1.8 (-1.6; 5.2) 0.6 (-3.3; 4.6) 0.97
  1. Adjusted for baseline echocardiographic value (i.e. LVMI at follow-up is adjusted for baseline LVMI), follow-up duration, age, sex, glycemic status, physical activity, smoking, BMI, systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, HbA1c, education, presence of CVD, BNP, eGFR, energy intake and energy-adjusted intakes of protein, saturated fat, fiber, calcium and vitamin C
  2. Abbreviations: LVMI left ventricle mass index, LVEF left ventricular ejection fraction, LAVI left atrium volume index
  3. aQuartile 1 indicates the lowest vitamin K intake
  4. bMean echocardiographic measures at follow-up