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Table 1 Basic characteristics of the study population in urban and rural

From: Dietary fructose and risk of metabolic syndrome in Chinese residents aged 45 and above: results from the China National Nutrition and Health Survey

  Total Urban Rural p-Value
N 25,528 13,067 12,461  
Age, years 59.1 (59.0, 59.2) 59.7 (59.5, 59.8) 58.5 (58.3, 58.7) < 0.001
Gender, n (%)
 Male 11,574 (45.3) 5762 (44.1) 5812 (46.6)  
 Female 13,954 (54.7) 7305 (55.9) 6649 (53.4)  
Marital status, n (%)     0.011
 Single 181 (0.7) 84 (0.6) 97 (0.8)  
 Married 23,093 (90.5) 11,767 (90.1) 11,326 (90.9)  
 Divorced or Widowed 2254 (8.8) 1216 (9.3) 1038 (8.3)  
Education, n (%)     < 0.001
 Primary schools or below 12,407 (48.6) 4426 (33.9) 7981 (64.1)  
 Junior high school 7980 (31.3) 4556 (34.9) 3424 (27.5)  
 Senior high school 3963 (15.5) 2975 (22.8) 988 (7.9)  
 College or above 1178 (4.6) 1110 (8.5) 68 (0.6)  
Smoking, n (%)     < 0.001
 Ever/Never 6830 (26.8) 3065 (23.5) 3765 (30.2)  
 Current 18,698 (73.2) 10,002 (76.5) 8696 (69.8)  
Alcohol, n (%)     < 0.001
 Ever/Never 8169 (32.0) 4189 (32.1) 3980 (31.9)  
 Current 17,359 (68.0) 8878 (67.9) 8481 (68.1)  
Physical activity, n (%)     < 0.001
 Yes 4012 (15.7) 3309 (25.3) 703 (5.6)  
 No 21,516 (84.3) 9758 (74.7) 11,758 (94.4)  
Income, n (%)     < 0.001
 Low 11,940 (46.8) 7024 (53.8) 4916 (39.5)  
 Middle 5202 (20.4) 1833 (14.0) 3369 (27.0)  
 High 7276 (28.5) 3456 (26.5) 3820 (30.7)  
 Unanswered 1110 (4.4) 754 (5.8) 356 (2.9)  
BMI, kg/m2 24.1 (24.1, 24.2) 24.6 (24.6, 24.7) 23.6 (23.6, 23.7) < 0.001
WC, cm 82.9 (82.7, 83.0) 84.2 (84.0, 84.3) 81.5 (81.3, 81.6) < 0.001
SBP, mmHg 130.9 (130.6, 131.1) 130.7 (130.4, 131.1) 131.0 (130.6, 131.4) 0.640
DBP, mmHg 81.0 (80.8, 81.1) 80.9 (80.7, 81.1) 81.1 (81.9, 81.3) 0.929
TC, mmol/L 4.79 (4.78, 4.80) 4.89 (4.87, 4.90) 4.70 (4.68, 4.72) < 0.001
HDL-C, mmol/L 1.19 (1.19, 1.20) 1.18 (1.18, 1.19) 1.20 (1.20, 1.21) < 0.001
TG, mmol/L 1.50 (1.49, 1.51) 1.55 (1.53, 1.57) 1.44 (1.42, 1.46) < 0.001
FPG, mmol/L 5.52 (5.50, 5.54) 5.67 (5.64, 5.69) 5.36 (5.34, 5.39) < 0.001
  1. Mean value (95% confidence interval) or n (%) were shown; BMI body mass index, WC waist circumference, SBP systolic blood pressure, DBP diastolic blood pressure, TC total cholesterol, HDL-C high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, TG triglyceride, FPG fasting plasma glucose