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Table 2 Characteristics of pregnant women in relation to the changing burden of anemia among pregnant women in Tanzania

From: High burden of anemia among pregnant women in Tanzania: a call to address its determinants

Variable Anemia in 2004–2005 Anemia in 2015–2016
N % N %
Individual and household characteristics
Age (years)
  15–19 126 65.1 150 63.9
  20–24 158 54.3 153 54.8
  25–29 169 62.7 149 55.3
  30–34 77 50.6 87 52.3
  35–39 57 52.7 66 55.7
  40–49 38 64.6 33 67.8
  P-Value   0.059   0.264
Highest educational level
  No education 174 60.7 126 63.4
  Primary 429 57.4 411 56.2
  Secondary education and above 23 55.2 102 53.9
  P-Value   0.676   0.202
Current marital status
  Never married 54 70.6 59 59
  Married 547 57.0 538 57.4
  Others 25 63.2 42 51.9
  P-value   0.087   0.751
Use of Insecticide-treated bed nets
  No bed net 407 55.7 239 54.6
  Treated bed nets 115 65.2 37 49.6
  Untreated bed nets 103 61.8 363 59.8
  P-Value   0.145   0.215
Has health insurancea
  No    604 58.1
  Yes    35 44.0
  P-Value     0.040
Type of residence
  Urban 119 57.3 176 53.6
  Rural 506 58.4 463 58.6
  P-Value   0.828   0.187
Number of household members
  1–3 160 52.4 146 51.5
  4–6 233 57.3 231 53.1
  7–9 130 61.4 146 63.1
  10 +  102 67.9 116 68.9
  P-Value   0.032   0.005
Wealth index
  Poorest 139 59.4 153 57.9
  Poorer 136 57.4 137 58.1
  Middle 136 65.2 127 63.0
  Richer 111 51.0 119 56.1
  Richest 103 58.3 103 50.2
  P-Value   0.281   0.285
Food securitya
  Insecure    290 60.9
  Secure    349 54.3
  P-Value     0.077
Low Feeding Frequencya
  No    431 58.0
  Yes    208 55.4
  P-Value     0.429
Maternal characteristics
Number of children ever born
  0 136 63.3 170 60.8
  1 115 53.9 126 55.5
  2 118 61.5 95 48.4
  3 60 52.4 70 53.6
  4 +  197 57.7 178 62.4
  P-Value   0.342   0.088
Age at the first childbirth (years)
  0–19 338 57.7 310 58.0
  20–49 152 55.3 158 52.1
  P-Value   0.559   0.182
Gestation age at ANC booking
  0–3 36 54.5 74 57.4
  4–6 341 57.6 283 57.5
  7–9 45 58.1 33 57.5
  P-Value   0.887   1.000
Number of ANC visit
  0–3 177 62.3 234 61.7
  4 and above 254 54.2 167 53.4
  P-Value   0.072   0.060
Provision of IFA
  No 178 60.7 98 61.2
  Yes 253 55.0 304 57.1
  P-Value   0.199   0.456
Place of delivery
  At home 250 58.8 188 63.5
  Public health facility 154 56.9 179 54.8
  Private health facility 31 50.3 28 46.6
  P-Value   0.592   0.048
Deworminga
  No    161 61.5
  Yes    240 56.0
  P-Value     0.220
Antimalaria given
  No 292 57.6 149 63.0
  Yes 138 56.9 251 55.4
  P-Value   0.863   0.075
  1. The P-values were taken from Pearson’s Chi-square test
  2. aData was available for only one dataset