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Table 1 Distribution of 155 irritable bowel syndrome cases and 310 controls according to selected variables

From: “Association between dietary inflammatory index (DII) and risk of irritable bowel syndrome: a case-control study”

Variables Mean ± SD or N (%)
Cases (n = 155) Controls (n = 310) P-value
Age (years) 39.23 ± 12.18 39.23 ± 12.18 1.00
Body mass index (BMI, kg/m2) 25.27 ± 3.72 25.08 ± 3.48 0.945
Waist circumference (WC,cm) 94.15 ± 12.20 92.35 ± 11.47 0.119
Total energy (Kcal) 2231.83 ± 381.51 2321.79 ± 437.27 0.023
Dietary inflammatory index (DII) 0.78 ± 2.22 -0.39 ± 2.27 < 0.001
Sex a
 Females 88 (57%) 176 (57%) 1.00
 Males 67 (43%) 134 (43%)
Education a
 Unlettered 7 (5%) 9 (3%) 0.392
 Diploma 27 (17%) 46 (14%)
 Under diploma 33 (21%) 86 (28%)
 Above diploma 88 (57%) 169 (55%)
Occupation a
 Freelance 59 (38%) 167 (54%) 0.006
 Employee 48 (31%) 61 (20%)
 Unemployed 5 (3%) 13 (4%)
 Housewife 43 (28%) 69 (22%)
Smoking a
 Yes 15 (10%) 19 (6%) 0.187
 No 140 (90%) 291 (94%)
Passive smoking a
 Yes 35 (23%) 44 (14%) 0.026
 No 120 (77%) 266 (86%)
Anxiety level a
 Mild 82 (53%) 277 (89%) < 0.001
 Moderate 33 (21%) 21 (7%)
 Severe 40 (26%) 12 (4%)
Depression level a
 Mild 89 (57%) 277 (89%) < 0.001
 Moderate 26 (17%) 19 (6%)
 Severe 40 (26%) 14 (5%)
Physical activity a
 Low activity 92 (59%) 122 (39%) < 0.001
 Moderate activity 43 (28%) 159 (51%)
 Severe activity 20 (13%) 29 (10%)
  1. All data are shown as mean ± SD, and analyzed by two-sample t-test unless otherwise indicated
  2. aData are numbers (%), and were analyzed by chi-squared test or Fisher’s exact test