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Table 1 Results from a multilevel logistic regression model examining demographic characteristics and health behaviours associated with energy drink consumption among Australian secondary school students (N = 8736)

From: Energy drink consumption among Australian adolescents associated with a cluster of unhealthy dietary behaviours and short sleep duration

  Energy drink consumption (≥1 cup/week)
  Adjusted % Adjusted OR 95% CI P value
Demographic characteristics     
 Sex     
  Female 5.2 1.00   
  Male 8.3 1.83 1.49–2.24 <0.001
 Year level     
  8 6.1 1.00   
  9 6.7 1.13 0.87–1.47 0.367
  10 8.1 1.43 1.09–1.89 0.011
  11 6.6 1.11 0.80–1.53 0.538
Socio-economic area     
 High (least disadvantaged) 6.3 1.00   
 Medium 7.1 1.17 0.87–1.57 0.300
 Low (most disadvantaged) 7.1 1.16 0.83–1.63 0.386
Geographic location     
 Metropolitan 6.9 1.00   
 Rural/regional 7.0 1.03 0.72–1.47 0.873
Weekly spending money     
 <AUD$10 5.2 1.00   
 AUD$10–AUD$39 6.6 1.35 1.06–1.72 0.014
 ≥AUD$40 9.0 2.03 1.60–2.57 <0.001
Health behaviours     
 Vegetable consumption     
  ≥2 servings/day 6.6 1.00   
  ≤1 serving/day 7.7 1.22 1.00–1.50 0.055
 Fruit consumption     
  ≥2 servings/day 7.3 1.00   
  ≤1 serving/day 6.0 0.76 0.62–0.95 0.015
 Fruit juice consumption     
  ≤3 cups/week 6.1 1.00   
  ≥4 cups/week 8.6 1.57 1.29–1.90 <0.001
 Sugary drink consumption     
  ≤3 cups/week 4.5 1.00   
  ≥4 cups/week 13.7 3.81 3.12–4.66 <0.001
 Fast food consumption     
  <1 times/week 4.9 1.00   
  ≥1 times/week 8.6 2.00 1.62–2.45 <0.001
 Snack food consumption     
 <14 times/week 5.9 1.00   
  ≥14 times/week 10.4 2.08 1.69–2.56 <0.001
 Physical activity     
  ≤4 days/week 6.9 1.00   
  ≥5 days/week 6.9 1.00 0.83–1.21 0.981
 Sedentary recreational screen time     
  ≤2 h/day 7.2 1.00   
  >2 h/day 6.9 0.94 0.65–1.36 0.739
 Estimated sleep durationa     
  Meeting recommendations 5.5 1.00   
  Not meeting recommendations 9.8 2.10 1.74–2.53 <0.001
  1. Notes: Bolded results are statistically significant at p < 0.01. Percentages and odds ratios are adjusted for all other covariates listed in the table, school-level clustering, state/territory and school type
  2. OR odds ratio, CI confidence interval, TV television
  3. aFor students aged 5 to 13 years, the recommended minimum sleep is 9 h per night, while for students aged 14 to 17 years, the recommended minimum sleep is 8 h per night [56]