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Table 1 Participant characteristics across quartiles of FFR proportion in the 400 m buffera

From: Residential exposure to fast-food restaurants and its association with diet quality, overweight and obesity in the Netherlands: a cross-sectional analysis in the EPIC-NL cohort

  Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4
N, (%) 2871 (34.9) 1240 (15.1) 2063 (25.1) 2057 (25.0)
Median FFR proportion 0.00 (0.00–0.00) 0.07 (0.06–0.09) 0.14 (0.13–0.17) 0.29 (0.22–0.34)
Age, y 70 ± 10 70 ± 11 71 ± 10 70 ± 10
Sex, n (%)
 Male 539 (18.8) 239 (19.3) 437 (21.2) 404 (19.6)
 Female 2332 (81.2) 1001 (80.7) 1626 (78.8) 1653 (80.4)
Household educational level, n (%)
 Low 901 (31.5) 408 (33.0) 653 (31.7) 622 (30.3)
 Moderate 730 (25.5) 283 (22.9) 482 (23.4) 515 (25.1)
 High 1229 (43.0) 547 (44.2) 923 (44.8) 916 (44.6)
Smoking, n (%)
 Current 192 (7.0) 86 (7.3) 145 (7.4) 125 (6.4)
 Former 1290 (47.4) 534 (45.6) 983 (50.2) 961 (49.2)
 Never 1242 (45.6) 552 (47.1) 831 (42.4) 868 (44.4)
BMI, kg/m2 25.5 ± 4.2 25.5 ± 4.4 25.5 ± 4.3 25.6 ± 4.1
Weight status
 Normal weight, n (%) 1434 (50.4) 612 (49.9) 1035 (50.8) 990 (48.7)
 Overweight, n (%) 1049 (36.9) 447 (36.5) 759 (37.2) 780 (38.4)
 Obesity, n (%) 360 (12.7) 167 (13.6) 244 (12.0) 262 (12.9)
Kcal/d 1,891 ± 634 1,901 ± 661 1,894 ± 627 1,888 ± 647
DHD-15 food groups, g/day
 Vegetables 117 (69–171) 124 (76–181) 118 (68–171) 119 (69–174)
 Fruit 165 (77–234) 187 (89–241) 156 (70–237) 149 (71–235)
 Wholegrain bread 71 (22–107) 70 (21–106) 70 (19–106) 70 (22–106)
 Legumes 6 (0–16) 6 (0–17) 9 (0–17) 6 (0–16)
 Nuts 6 (1–19) 7 (1–21) 6 (1–20) 7 (1–20)
 Dairy 266 (141–402) 268 (149–399) 263 (145–406) 254 (136–392)
 Fish 14 (7–29) 15 (7–36) 14 (5–29) 14 (7–36)
 Tea 340 (121–510) 340 (146–510) 340 (121–510) 340 (97–680)
 Butter and solid fats 0 (0–5) 0 (0–6) 0 (0–6) 0 (0–6)
 Oils and diet margarines 12 (3–32) 10 (3–31) 11 (3–30) 11 (3–30)
 Red meat 40 (19–74) 39 (19–74) 39 (17–76) 41 (18–77)
 Processed meat 25 (10–45) 23 (8–41) 23 (8–42) 22 (9–41)
 Sweetened beverages and fruit juices 75 (11–176) 58 (6–182) 71 (7–176) 63 (7–175)
Neighbourhood socioeconomic statusb 0.4 (-0.3; 0.9) 0.3 (-0.6; 1.1) 0.4 (-0.6; 1.1) 0.4 (-0.8; 1.1)
Level of urbanisationc, n (%)
Very low level of urbanisation 593 (21.0) 456 (39.2) 839 (41.3) 546 (27.1)
 Low level or urbanisation 924 (32.7) 273 (23.5) 609 (30.0) 723 (35.8)
 Moderate level of urbanisation 683 (24.2) 184 (15.8) 226 (11.1) 408 (20.2)
 High level of urbanisation 260 (9.2) 187 (16.1) 211 (10.4) 196 (9.7)
 Very high level or urbanisation 366 (13.0) 63 (5.4) 146 (7.2) 145 (7.2)
  1. aContinuous variables are presented as means (standard deviation) or as medians (p25 – p75)
  2. bHigher scores represent higher neighbourhood socioeconomic status
  3. cVery low level of urbanisation ≤ 500 addresses/km2; low level of urbanisation = 500–1000 addresses/ km2; moderate level of urbanisation = 1000–1500 addresses/ km2; high level of urbanisation = 1500–2000 addresses/ km2; very high level or urbanisation ≥ 2000 addresses/ km2. The following variables had missing data: smoking status (n = 422); level of urbanisation (n = 193); BMI (n = 92); household educational level (n = 22); neighbourhood socioeconomic status (n = 16)