Skip to main content

Table 5 Dietary intake of selected vitamins, minerals, fatty acids, and cholesterol in the study and control groups

From: Dietary and lifestyle behavior in adults with epilepsy needs improvement: a case-control study from northeastern Poland

  Study Group
Mean ± SD (% deficient)
Healthy Control
Mean ± SD (% deficient)
P value
Vitamin B1 [mg] 1.19 ± 0.47 (120) 1.24 ± 0.51 (128.7) 0.538
<EAR (%) 33.3 34.2
Vitamin B2 [mg] 1.52 ± 0.51 (155.64) 1.58 ± 0.62 (164.49) 0.525
<EAR (%) 13.3 10
Vitamin B3 [mg] 18,2 ± 9,92 (158,26) 20,06 ± 8,05 (176,78) 0.047
<EAR (%) 25,0 7,14
Vitamin B6 [mg] 1.88 ± 1.2 (166.04) 1.89 ± 0.88 (165.83) 0.293
<EAR (%) 16.7 17.14
Folic acid [μg] 244.23 ± 85.18 (76.3) 270.23 ± 87.09 (84.45) 0.081
<EAR (%) 80 77.14
Vitamin B12 [μg] 4.28 ± 3.9 (213.83) 3.58 ± 2.86 (179.03) 0.304
<EAR (%) 21.7 22.8
Vitamin A [μg] 1113.5 ± 966.25 (202.55) 995.4 ± 729.2 (183.27) 0.772
<EAR (%) 20 25.7
Vitamin C [mg] 83.06 ± 63.29 (124.85) 122.15 ± 92.52 (189.09) 0.005
<EAR (%) 50 31.4
Vitamin D [μg] 3.79 ± 5.45 (25.26) 2.85 ± 2,.56 (19) 0.469
<AI (%) 96 98.6
Sodium [mg] 3524.27 ± 1313.5 (234.95) 3096.7 ± 1091.4 (206.45) 0.046
<AI (%) 1.6 1.4
Potassium [mg] 2939.11 ± 1033.13 (83.97) 3335.05 ± 1077.65 (95.29) 0.022
<AI (%) 73.3 55.7
Calcium [mg] 575.2 ± 281.55 (55.65) 623.71 ± 252.72 (70.98) 0.211
<EAR (%) 83.3 57.14
Phosphorus [mg] 1170.84 ± 410.65 (200.96) 1225.62 ± 362.04 (211.31) 0.338
<EAR (%) 5 1.4
Magnesium [mg] 282.57 ± 94.81 (95.75) 308.66 ± 104.48 (107.96) 0.258
<EAR (%) 51.6 51.4
Iron [mg] 10.6 ± 3.41 (158.24) 11.11 ± 3.18 (159.36) 0.245
<EAR (%) 16.6 12.85
Zinc [mg] 9.57 ± 3.22 (121.61) 9.66 ± 2.87 (126.79) 0.698
<EAR (%) 33.3 24.2
Iodine [μg] 117.03 ± 50.92 (123.19) 113.11 ± 46.88 (119.06) 0.671
<EAR (%) 33.3 40
SFA [g] 25.41 ± 10.79 21.97 ± 9.94 0.077
MUFA [g] 30.05 ± 16.7 25.1 ± 10.6 0.116
PUFA [g] 10.04 ± 6.09 8.86 ± 3.8 0.262
Cholesterol [mg] 287.22 ± 118.1 270.97 ± 148.11 0.241
  1. SD standard deviation, EAR Estimated Average Requirement, AI Average Intake, SFA short chain fatty acids, MUFA monounsaturated fatty acids, PUFA polyunsaturated fatty acids