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Table 2 Baseline characteristics of participants according to quartiles (Q) of the empirical dietary index for insulin resistance

From: Association of the insulinemic potential of diet and lifestyle with risk of diabetes incident in Tehranian adults: a population based cohort study

  Empirical dietary index for insulin resistance P for trend*
Q1(n=933) Q2(n=933) Q3(n=933) Q4(n=933)
Demographic and Anthropometric data
 Age (years) 42.6 ± 12.2 41.5 ± 12.3 40.1 ± 12.4 39.9 ± 11.9 <0.001
 Male (%) 399 (42.8) 417 (44.7) 430 (46.1) 440 (47.2) 0.051
 Physical activity (MET-h/week) 65.5 (31.9 – 94.3) 64.7(36.4 – 95.2) 71.1 (36.7 – 103.0) 71.4 (38.3 – 105.6) <0.001
 BMI (kg/m2) 27.0 ± 4.0 27.1 ± 4.0 27.1 ± 4.2 27.3 ± 4.2 0.165
 waist circumference (cm) 91.8 ± 10.5 91.7 ± 11.0 92.0 ± 11.1 92.2 ± 11.2 0.401
 Current smokers (%) 87 (9.3) 104 (11.1) 104 (11.1) 109 (11.7) 0.366
 Academic education, N (%) 249 (26.9) 270(29.2) 304 (33.0) 266(28.8) 0.036
Biochemical data
 FBS(mg/dl) 92.9 ± 8.3 92.7 ± 8.4 92.5 ± 7.8 93.2 ± 8.7 0.393
 TGs(mg/dl) 134 ± 82 134 ± 75 138 ± 80 145 ± 91 0.002
 HDL- Cholesterol (mg/dl) 48.5 ± 11.5 47.8 ± 11.6 47.2 ± 11.5 46.9 ± 11.3 0.002
 TG:HDL ratio 3.14 ± 3.01 3.16 ± 2.44 3.25 ± 2.40 3.50 ± 2.93 0.002
Insulin Scores
 EDIH 0.07 ± 0.22 0.13 ± 0.18 0.17 ± 0.19 0.23 ± 0.31 <0.001
 ELIH 1.24 ± 0.23 1.27 ± 0.24 1.29 ± 0.25 1.32 ± 0.30 <0.001
 EDIR 0.27 ± 0.13 0.50 ± 0.05 0.71 ± 0.07 1.20 ± 0.39 <0.001
 ELIR 2.55 ± 0.58 3.25 ± 0.78 4.13 ± 1.06 6.07 ± 2.49 <0.001
Nutrient Intake
 Energy(Kcal/d) 2035 ± 660 2267 ± 660 2496 ± 652 2904 ± 703 <0.001
 Carbohydrate(% of energy) 57.8 ± 7.3 59.0 ± 6.5 59.4 ± 12.8 59.7 ± 6.6 <0.001
 Protein(% of energy) 15.0 ± 4.7 15.0 ± 3.0 15.3 ± 12.9 14.5 ± 2.5 0.138
 Fat(% of energy) 31.0 ± 6.7 29.7 ± 5.8 30.5 ± 29.0 29.0 ± 6.3 0.020
Food groups
 Low-fat dairy (serving/d) 1.81 ± 1.34 1.80 ± 1.03 1.84 ± 1.11 1.89 ± 1.16 0.100
 High-fat dairy (serving/d) 0.65 (0.21 – 1.33) 0.49 (0.16 – 1.04) 0.53 (0.18 – 1.03) 0.54 (0.20 – 1.10) 0.002
 Refined grain(serving/d) 2.90 ± 1.46 3.76 ± 1.72 4.94 ± 2.33 7.36 ± 4.18 <0.001
 Red and processed meat(serving/d) 0.56 ± 0.44 0.75 ± 0.56 0.90 ± 0.67 1.12 ± 0.99 <0.001
 Fruits(serving/d) 3.28 ± 3.25 3.82 ± 3.62 3.87 ± 3.19 4.43 ± 3.77 <0.001
 Vegetables(serving/d) 2.29 ± 1.69 2.99 ± 1.41 3.57 ± 1.78 4.74 ± 3.03 <0.001
  1. Data represented as mean ±SD, or median (IQR 25-75) for continues variables and number and percent for categorical variables
  2. *Chi-square and linear regression were used to test the trend of continues and categorical variables across quartiles of empirical dietary index for insulin resistance (as median value in each quartile), respectively