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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of participants according to quartiles (Q) of the empirical dietary index for hyperinsulinemia

From: Association of the insulinemic potential of diet and lifestyle with risk of diabetes incident in Tehranian adults: a population based cohort study

  Empirical dietary index for hyperinsulinemia P for trend*
Q1(n=933) Q2(n=933) Q3(n=933) Q4(n=933)
Demographic and Anthropometric data
 Age (years) 42.8(12.8) 42.1 (12.5) 40.4 (11.8) 38.8 (11.5) <0.001
 Male (%) 354 (37.9) 419 (44.9) 422 (45.2) 491 (52.6) <0.001
 Physical activity (MET-h/wk) 64.6 (30.8 – 95.9) 65.5 (32.9 – 93.4) 67.6 (38.5 – 102.6) 72.7 (39.8 -104.9) <0.001
 BMI (kg/m2) 27.6 ± 3.9 27.1 ± 4.2 27.2 ± 4.2 26.5 ± 4.0 <0.001
 waist circumference (cm) 92.6 ± 10.9 92.0 ± 11.1 92.0 ± 11.0 91.1 ± 10.7 0.005
 Current smokers (%) 77 (8.3) 87 (9.3) 106 (11.4) 134 (14.4) <0.001
 Academic education, N (%) 215 (23.0) 273 (29.3) 301 (32.3) 300 (32.2) <0.001
Biochemical data
 FBS(mg/dl) 93.1 ± 8.4 93.0 ± 8.4 93.0 ± 8.1 92.3 ± 8.4 0.044
 TGs(mg/dl) 139 ± 86 140 ± 85 136 ± 80 136 ± 78 0.299
 HDL- Cholesterol (mg/dl) 47.8 ± 12.2 48.1 ± 11.4 47.5 ± 11.1 47.1 ± 11.2 0.078
 TG:HDL ratio 3.23 ± 3.06 3.27 ± 2.68 3.20 ± 2.45 3.26 ± 2.63 0.635
Insulin Scores
 EDIH -0.05 ± 0.08 0.06 ± 0.02 0.16 ± 0.03 0.44 ± 0.29 <0.001
 ELIH 1.18 ± 0.22 1.24 ± 0.23 1.29 ± 0.23 1.40 ± 0.30 <0.001
 EDIR 0.50 ± 0.35 0.61 ± 0.31 0.73 ± 0.35 0.83 ± 0.48 <0.001
 ELIR 3.56 ± 1.87 3.88 ± 1.86 4.14 ± 1.84 4.43 ± 2.11 <0.001
Nutrient Intake
 Energy(Kcal/d) 2303 ± 750 2241 ± 703 2401 ± 685 2758 ± 719 <0.001
 Carbohydrate(% of energy) 61.1 ± 7.5 59.9 ± 6.0 59.0 ± 12.5 55.8 ± 6.3 <0.001
 Protein(% of energy) 14.5 ± 3.6 14.9 ± 4.0 15.6 ± 12.8 14.9 ± 3.2 0.299
 Fat(% of energy) 28.8 ± 6.4 28.8 ± 5.9 30.4 ± 29.0 32.3 ± 6.2 <0.001
Food groups
 Low-fat dairy (serving/d) 1.81 ± 1.23 1.71 ± 1.09 1.86 ± 1.13 1.96 ± 1.26 <0.001
 High-fat dairy (serving/d) 0.88 (0.22 – 1.41) 0.45 (0.16 – 1.04) 0.47 (0.16 – 0.99) 0.55 (0.22 – 1.09) <0.001
 Refined grain(serving/d) 4.16 ± 3.01 4.58 ± 2.97 4.91 ± 3.06 5.32 ± 3.36 <0.001
 Red and processed meat(serving/d) 0.57 ± 0.41 0.69 ± 0.48 0.90 ± 0.61 1.18 ± 1.05 <0.001
 Fruits(serving/d) 5.19 ± 4.70 3.41 ± 2.93 3.33 ± 2.83 3.47 ± 2.77 <0.001
 Vegetables(serving/d) 3.24 ± 2.28 3.04 ± 1.79 3.49 ± 2.10 3.82 ± 2.70 <0.001
  1. Data represented as mean ±SD, or median (IQR 25-75) for continuous variables and number and percent for categorical variables
  2. *Chi-square and linear regression were used to test the trend of continuous and categorical variables across quartiles of the empirical dietary index for hyperinsulinemia (as the median value in each quartile), respectively