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Table 4 Energy-adjusted food group intake on the dietary recording day among 2221 Japanese adults aged 18–64 years according to frequency of consuming meals prepared away from home [Mean (SD)]†

From: Consumption of meals prepared away from home is associated with inadequacy of dietary fiber, vitamin C and mineral intake among Japanese adults: analysis from the 2015 National Health and Nutrition Survey

Food groups (g/day) Men Women
Frequency of consuming meals prepared away from home P P§ Frequency of consuming meals prepared away from home P P§
Low
(n = 321)
Moderate
(n = 465)
High
(n = 135)
Low
(n = 608)
Moderate
(n = 610)
High
(n = 82)
Grains 637.8 (178.1) 636.2 (181.8) 668.0 (196.3) 0.187 0.372 431.9 (143.5) 434.7 (143.4) 468.6 (171.2) 0.099 0.148
Potatoes 66.5 (79.7) 56.8 (66.6) 52.7 (67.7) 0.086 0.063 59.3 (75.8) 44.5 (56.0)* 52.6 (74.1) 0.001 0.002
Sugars 7.9 (11.0) 7.1 (8.9) 7.7 (8.2) 0.507 0.694 7.1 (8.3) 7.1 (8.9) 5.5 (6.3) 0.226 0.292
Pulses 79.9 (101.3) 76.4 (83.3) 67.9 (92.8) 0.441 0.526 75.4 (91.6) 64.8 (74.7) 65.6 (90.3) 0.079 0.077
Sesame and nuts 2.2 (5.7) 3.3 (12.2) 1.7 (5.2) 0.119 0.202 2.4 (5.4) 2.8 (8.3) 1.9 (4.8) 0.378 0.376
Vegetables 354.3 (186.5) 362.4 (204.3) 294.2 (171.8)* 0.001 0.004 322.2 (171.6) 312.0 (161.7) 262.1 (160.8)* 0.009 0.012
Fruits 94.6 (149.3) 84.0 (114.6) 56.4 (125.3) 0.016 0.076 109.8 (120.0) 104.8 (130.6) 95.1 (123.3) 0.546 0.815
Mushrooms 22.9 (37.9) 18.6 (30.4) 13.1 (23.0)* 0.010 0.015 20.2 (28.7) 18.7 (30.3) 16.1 (25.7) 0.423 0.422
Seaweeds 15.5 (25.8) 12.0 (19.8) 11.9 (20.1) 0.068 0.086 11.4 (21.2) 10.1 (19.5) 11.0 (22.2) 0.541 0.593
Fish and shellfishes 88.5 (84.6) 87.7 (77.2) 71.7 (78.8) 0.091 0.276 67.7 (64.0) 66.1 (68.2) 67.1 (66.9) 0.913 0.856
Meat and poultry 131.1 (87.3) 134.8 (96.3) 138.2 (100.8) 0.739 0.988 91.5 (64.9) 101.1 (71.5)* 87.4 (66.4) 0.027 0.032
Eggs 48.8 (46.7) 45.4 (41.3) 43.3 (41.2) 0.391 0.419 41.4 (38.0) 39.3 (38.0) 38.0 (38.5) 0.536 0.597
Dairy products 100.9 (143.8) 104.3 (139.9) 97.0 (163.1) 0.863 0.744 124.5 (140.1) 124.5 (130.8) 124.0 (135.1) 0.999 0.992
Fat and oils 13.4 (10.2) 15.9 (11.0)* 17.5 (10.8)* < 0.001 0.002 11.0 (9.0) 12.9 (9.5)* 13.2 (8.2) 0.001 0.001
Confectionaries 19.5 (42.0) 21.6 (43.2) 22.6 (54.1) 0.728 0.806 32.9 (47.6) 28.5 (44.3) 31.8 (40.5) 0.247 0.339
Beverages 1124.5 (684.1) 1146.0 (755.8) 1207.4 (748.5) 0.541 0.513 939.4 (544.3) 930.6 (542.6) 1000.7 (615.3) 0.554 0.491
Seasonings 115.5 (108.0) 135.7 (125.0) 147.4 (144.0) 0.016 0.084 84.9 (77.4) 93.6 (86.4) 97.4 (120.0) 0.139 0.125
  1. Food groups expressed as amount per day were energy-adjusted by using the following equation: energy-adjusted intake (g/d) = observed intake (g/day) × EER (kcal/day)/observed energy intake (kcal/day)
  2. The p values are shown for an analysis of variance to analyze differences of nutrient intake between three groups
  3. § The p values are shown for covariate analysis to analyse difference of nutrient intake between three groups adjusted for confounding variables of age category (18–34, 35–50, and 51–64 years), occupation (professional / manager, sales / service / clerical, security / transportation / labour, student, housekeeper, and not in paid employment), living alone (yes or no), region (Hokkaido and Tohoku, Kanto, Hokuriku and Tokai, Kinki, Shikoku and Chugoku and Kyusyu), current smoker (yes or no) and habitual alcohol drinker (yes or no)
  4. * There is significant difference by Dunnett test compared with Low group in the adjusted model