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Table 3 Multivariate-adjusted ORs for the presence of inadequate nutrient intake (based on EAR and DG) compared with the meeting EAR and DG for frequency of consuming meals prepared away from home among 2221 Japanese adults aged 18–64 years

From: Consumption of meals prepared away from home is associated with inadequacy of dietary fiber, vitamin C and mineral intake among Japanese adults: analysis from the 2015 National Health and Nutrition Survey

  Men Women
Frequency of consuming meals prepared away from home Frequency of consuming meals prepared away from home
Low
(n = 321)
Moderate
(n = 465)
High
(n = 135)
Low
(n = 608)
Moderate
(n = 610)
High
(n = 82)
Nutrients with EAR
 Protein, n, % 3 0.9 2 0.4 0 0 3 0.2 0 0 0 0
  Crude OR (95% CI)
  Adjusted OR (95% CI)
Vitamins
 Vitamin A, n, % 216 67.3 289 62.2 100 74.1 325 53.5 325 53.3 48 58.5
  Crude OR (95% CI) 1.00 (Reference) 0.80 (0.59–1.08) 1.39 (0.89–2.18) 1.00 (Reference) 0.99 (0.79–1.24) 1.23 (0.77–1.96)
  Adjusted OR (95% CI) 1.00 (Reference) 0.81 (0.60–1.10) 1.41 (0.88–2.24) 1.00 (Reference) 0.97 (0.77–1.22) 1.18 (0.73–1.90)
 Vitamin B1, n, % 197 61.4 288 61.9 96 71.1 362 59.5 362 59.3 43 52.4
  Crude OR (95% CI) 1.00 (Reference) 1.02 (0.76–1.37) 1.55 (1.00–2.39) 1.00 (Reference) 0.99 (0.80–1.25) 0.75 (0.47–1.19)
  Adjusted OR (95% CI) 1.00 (Reference) 1.00 (0.74–1.34) 1.44 (0.92–2.25) 1.00 (Reference) 1.01 (0.80–1.27) 0.77 (0.48–1.23)
 Vitamin B2, n, % 136 42.4 182 39.1 70 51.9 178 29.3 173 28.4 25 30.5
  Crude OR (95% CI) 1.00 (Reference) 0.88 (0.66–1.17) 1.47 (0.98–2.19) 1.00 (Reference) 0.96 (0.75–1.23) 1.06 (0.64–1.75)
  Adjusted OR (95% CI) 1.00 (Reference) 0.86 (0.64–1.16) 1.46 (0.96–2.22) 1.00 (Reference) 0.92 (0.71–1.18) 1.00 (0.60–1.66)
 Niacin, n, % 1 0.3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
  Crude OR (95% CI)
  Adjusted OR (95% CI)
 Vitamin B6, n, % 107 33.3 154 33.1 59 43.7 212 34.9 221 36.2 32 39.0
  Crude OR (95% CI) 1.00 (Reference) 0.99 (0.73–1.34) 1.55 (1.03–2.34) 1.00 (Reference) 1.06 (0.84–1.34) 1.20 (0.74–1.92)
  Adjusted OR (95% CI) 1.00 (Reference) 0.95 (0.70–1.30) 1.36 (0.88–2.09) 1.00 (Reference) 1.04 (0.82–1.32) 1.17 (0.72–1.90)
 Vitamin B12, n, % 46 14.3 53 11.4 18 13.3 138 22.7 123 20.2 17 20.7
  Crude OR (95% CI) 1.00 (Reference) 0.77 (0.50–1.17) 0.92 (0.51–1.65) 1.00 (Reference) 0.86 (0.65–1.13) 0.89 (0.51–1.57)
  Adjusted OR (95% CI) 1.00 (Reference) 0.75 (0.49–1.15) 0.85 (0.46–1.56) 1.00 (Reference) 0.82 (0.62–1.07) 0.76 (0.43–1.36)
 Folate, n, % 26 8.1 46 9.9 20 14.8 78 12.8 85 13.9 18 22.0
  Crude OR (95% CI) 1.00 (Reference) 1.25 (0.75–2.06) 1.97 (1.06–3.67) 1.00 (Reference) 1.10 (0.79–1.53) 1.91 (1.08–3.39)
  Adjusted OR (95% CI) 1.00 (Reference) 1.15 (0.69–1.93) 1.65 (0.87–3.16) 1.00 (Reference) 1.03 (0.74–1.45) 1.80 (1.00–3.27)
 Vitamin C, n, % 153 47.7 217 46.7 79 58.5 258 42.4 296 48.5 48 58.5
  Crude OR (95% CI) 1.00 (Reference) 0.96 (0.72–1.28) 1.55 (1.03–2.33) 1.00 (Reference) 1.28 (1.02–1.60) 1.92 (1.20–3.06)
  Adjusted OR (95% CI) 1.00 (Reference) 0.87 (0.65–1.17) 1.25 (0.82–1.92) 1.00 (Reference) 1.20 (0.95–1.52) 1.72 (1.05–2.80)
Minerals
 Calcium, n, % 189 58.9 267 57.4 91 67.4 327 53.8 364 59.7 52 63.4
  Crude OR (95% CI) 1.00 (Reference) 0.94 (0.70–1.26) 1.44 (0.95–2.21) 1.00 (Reference) 1.27 (1.01–1.60) 1.49 (0.93–2.40)
  Adjusted OR (95% CI) 1.00 (Reference) 0.93 (0.69–1.26) 1.42 (0.91–2.20) 1.00 (Reference) 1.24 (0.98–1.56) 1.44 (0.88–2.35)
 Magnesium, n, % 156 48.6 225 48.4 76 56.3 222 36.5 263 43.1 34 41.5
  Crude OR (95% CI) 1.00 (Reference) 0.99 (0.75–1.32) 1.36 (0.91–2.04) 1.00 (Reference) 1.32 (1.05–1.66) 1.23 (0.77–1.97)
  Adjusted OR (95% CI) 1.00 (Reference) 0.99 (0.74–1.33) 1.27 (0.83–1.93) 1.00 (Reference) 1.31 (1.03–1.65) 1.22 (0.75–1.98)
 Iron, n, % 23 7.2 26 5.6 19 14.1 237 39.0 270 44.3 44 53.7
  Crude OR (95% CI) 1.00 (Reference) 0.77 (0.43–1.37) 2.12 (1.11–4.04) 1.00 (Reference) 1.24 (0.99–1.56) 1.81 (1.14–2.88)
  Adjusted OR (95% CI) 1.00 (Reference) 0.75 (0.41–1.36) 2.03 (1.03–4.01) 1.00 (Reference) 1.13 (0.84–1.51) 1.35 (0.74–2.46)
 Zinc, n, % 24 7.5 42 9.0 14 10.4 36 5.9 26 4.3 7 8.5
  Crude OR (95% CI) 1.00 (Reference) 1.23 (0.73–2.07) 1.43 (0.72–2.86) 1.00 (Reference) 0.71 (0.42–1.19) 1.48 (0.64–3.45)
  Adjusted OR (95% CI) 1.00 (Reference) 1.24 (0.72–2.13) 1.57 (0.75–3.29) 1.00 (Reference) 0.63 (0.37–1.08) 1.22 (0.50–2.99)
 Copper, n, % 0 0 2 0.4 1 0.7 2 0.3 3 0.5 0 0
  Crude OR (95% CI)
  Adjusted OR (95% CI)
Nutrients with DG
 Protein, n, % 110 34.3 159 34.2 63 46.7 182 29.9 186 30.5 31 37.8
  Crude OR (95% CI) 1.00 (Reference) 1.00 (0.74–1.35) 1.68 (1.12–2.53) 1.00 (Reference) 1.03 (0.80–1.31) 1.42 (0.88–2.30)
  Adjusted OR (95% CI) 1.00 (Reference) 0.97 (0.72–1.32) 1.58 (1.03–2.40) 1.00 (Reference) 1.00 (0.78–1.28) 1.30 (0.80–2.11)
 Fat, n, % 134 41.7 222 47.7 61 45.2 325 53.5 326 53.4 49 59.8
  Crude OR (95% CI) 1.00 (Reference) 1.28 (0.96–1.70) 1.15 (0.77–1.73) 1.00 (Reference) 1.00 (0.80–1.25) 1.29 (0.81–2.07)
  Adjusted OR (95% CI) 1.00 (Reference) 1.28 (0.96–1.71) 1.12 (0.74–1.71) 1.00 (Reference) 1.00 (0.80–1.26) 1.31 (0.81–2.11)
 Saturated fat, n, % 121 37.7 200 43.0 59 43.7 338 55.6 361 59.2 46 56.1
  Crude OR (95% CI) 1.00 (Reference) 1.25 (0.93–1.67) 1.28 (0.85–1.93) 1.00 (Reference) 1.16 (0.92–1.45) 1.02 (0.64–1.62)
  Adjusted OR (95% CI) 1.00 (Reference) 1.23 (0.91–1.65) 1.18 (0.77–1.80) 1.00 (Reference) 1.15 (0.91–1.44) 1.01 (0.63–1.61)
 Carbohydrate, n, % 121 37.7 167 35.9 43 31.9 219 36.0 204 33.4 32 39.0
  Crude OR (95% CI) 1.00 (Reference) 0.93 (0.69–1.24) 0.70 (0.50–1.18) 1.00 (Reference) 0.89 (0.71–1.13) 1.14 (0.71–1.83)
  Adjusted OR (95% CI) 1.00 (Reference) 0.95 (0.70–1.28) 0.80 (0.52–1.25) 1.00 (Reference) 0.88 (0.69–1.11) 1.22 (0.75–1.98)
 Dietary fiber, n, % 211 65.7 319 68.6 107 79.3 399 65.6 440 72.1 60 73.2
  Crude OR (95% CI) 1.00 (Reference) 1.14 (0.84–1.54) 1.99 (1.24–3.21) 1.00 (Reference) 1.36 (1.06–1.73) 1.43 (0.85–2.39)
  Adjusted OR (95% CI) 1.00 (Reference) 1.14 (0.83–1.56) 1.91 (1.17–3.12) 1.00 (Reference) 1.32 (1.03–1.69) 1.31 (0.77–2.23)
 Sodium (salt-equivalent), n, % 297 92.5 427 91.8 129 95.6 522 85.9 532 87.2 69 84.2
  Crude OR (95% CI) 1.00 (Reference) 0.91 (0.53–1.55) 1.74 (0.69–4.35) 1.00 (Reference) 1.12 (0.81–1.56) 0.87 (0.46–1.65)
  Adjusted OR (95% CI) 1.00 (Reference) 0.95 (0.55–1.64) 1.88 (0.73–4.84) 1.00 (Reference) 1.11 (0.80–1.55) 0.86 (0.45–1.64)
 Potassium, n, % 202 62.9 305 65.6 107 79.3 348 57.2 383 62.8 49 59.8
  Crude OR (95% CI) 1.00 (Reference) 1.12 (0.84–1.51) 2.25 (1.40–3.62) 1.00 (Reference) 1.26 (1.00–1.59) 0.88 (0.55–1.41)
  Adjusted OR (95% CI) 1.00 (Reference) 1.13 (0.83–1.53) 2.17 (1.33–3.55) 1.00 (Reference) 1.23 (0.97–1.56) 1.01 (0.62–1.65)
  1. CI confidence interval, DG tentative dietary goal for preventing lifestyle-related disease, DRI Dietary Reference Intakes, EAR estimated average requirement, OR odd ratio
  2. Percentage of subjects whose intake was in the range of DG or above the EAR. Each energy-adjusted nutrient intake (units/day) was compared with each DRI value (units/day), using the cut-point method
  3. The probability of inadequacy > 50% for menstruating women whose bioavailability of iron is 15% (< 9.3 mg/d) was considered inadequate for women aged 20–49 years
  4. * Adjusted for confounding variables of age category (18–34, 35–50, and 51–64 years), occupation (professional / manager, sales / service / clerical, security / transportation / labour, student, housekeeper, and not in paid employment), living alone (yes or no), region (Hokkaido and Tohoku, Kanto, Hokuriku and Tokai, Kinki, Shikoku and Chugoku and Kyusyu), current smoker (yes or no) and habitual alcohol drinker (yes or no)