Skip to main content

Table 2 Energy-adjusted nutrient intakes on the dietary recording day among 2221 Japanese adults aged 18–64 years according to frequency of consuming meals prepared away from home [Mean (SD)]†

From: Consumption of meals prepared away from home is associated with inadequacy of dietary fiber, vitamin C and mineral intake among Japanese adults: analysis from the 2015 National Health and Nutrition Survey

  Men Women
Frequency of consuming meals prepared away from home Pǁ P Frequency of consuming meals prepared away from home Pǁ P
Low
(n = 321)
Moderate
(n = 465)
High
(n = 135)
Low
(n = 608)
Moderate
(n = 610)
High
(n = 82)
Energy, kcal/d 2314 (592) 2302 (571) 2241 (554) 0.454 0.282 1771 (430) 1785 (423) 1799 (499) 0.771 0.710
Nutrients with EAR
 Protein, g/d 91 (18) 91 (17) 87 (19)* 0.031 0.020 73 (14) 73 (13) 72 (15) 0.598 0.782
Vitamins
 Vitamin A, μg RE/d 614 (727) 662 (751) 527 (366) 0.136 0.181 617 (910) 559 (424) 469 (248) 0.111 0.084
 Vitamin B1, mg/d 1.1 (0.41) 1.1 (0.42) 1.1 (0.44) 0.455 0.319 0.9 (0.31) 0.90 (0.30) 0.93 (0.34) 0.653 0.646
 Vitamin B2, mg/d 1.4 (0.46) 1.4 (0.48) 1.4 (0.51) 0.524 0.453 1.3 (0.46) 1.2 (0.39) 1.3 (0.48) 0.290 0.388
 Niacin, mg/d 35 (9.8) 36 (11.2) 33 (10.5) 0.058 0.075 28 (7.6) 28 (7.5) 28 (8.5) 0.987 0.964
 Vitamin B6, mg/d 1.4 (0.42) 1.4 (0.42) 1.3 (0.69) 0.135 0.291 1.2 (0.38) 1.2 (0.37) 1.1 (0.37) 0.569 0.724
 Vitamin B12, μg/d 7.7 (7.7) 7.8 (7.7) 6.5 (6.2) 0.184 0.333 6.0 (6.1) 5.8 (6.1) 6.2 (5.5) 0.756 0.612
 Folate, μg/d 352 (135) 363 (153) 334 (148) 0.120 0.225 335 (144) 319 (123)* 307 (119) 0.044 0.046
 Vitamin C, mg/d 103 (70) 103 (66) 87 (61) 0.032 0.162 110 (71) 103 (69) 92 (71) 0.040 0.128
Minerals
 Calcium, mg/d 580 (258) 578 (263) 519 (245)* 0.045 0.044 561 (230) 525 (223)* 523 (243) 0.019 0.036
 Magnesium, mg/d 315 (93) 315 (88) 294 (89) 0.046 0.084 271 (75) 260 (71)* 256 (74) 0.011 0.014
 Iron, mg/d 9.5 (2.9) 9.7 (2.8) 8.9 (2.6)* 0.007 0.008 8.6 (2.8) 8.0 (2.2)* 7.9 (2.5) < 0.001 0.001
 Zinc, mg/d 10.7 (2.2) 10.8 (2.5) 10.5 (2.5) 0.635 0.398 8.4 (1.8) 8.4 (1.8) 8.2 (1.9) 0.600 0.684
 Copper, mg/d 1.5 (0.32) 1.5 (0.34) 1.4 (0.38)* 0.029 0.027 1.2 (0.29) 1.2 (0.29) 1.2 (0.34) 0.061 0.060
Nutrients with DG
 Protein, %energy 14.3 (2.9) 14.3 (2.6) 13.5 (3.0)* 0.005 0.015 15.0 (3.0) 14.9 (2.8) 14.6 (3.0) 0.451 0.800
 Fat, %energy 25.1 (6.7) 26.3 (6.9) 26.9 (6.8) 0.020 0.141 28.0 (7.1) 28.8 (7.2) 28.5 (7.3) 0.154 0.166
 Saturated fat, %energy 6.6 (2.4) 6.8 (2.4) 7.0 (2.7) 0.212 0.673 7.6 (2.6) 7.9 (2.8) 7.8 (2.8) 0.165 0.129
 Carbohydrate, %energy 60.5 (8.0) 59.5 (8.1) 59.7 (7.2) 0.173 0.283 57.0 (8.1) 56.3 (8.1) 56.8 (8.4) 0.349 0.322
 Dietary fiber, g/day 18.1 (6.8) 17.9 (6.6) 15.9 (5.5)* 0.002 0.002 16.5 (6.0) 15.6 (6.0)* 14.8 (5.1)* 0.004 0.005
 Sodium (salt-equivalent), day 13.0 (4.1) 13.1 (4.2) 13.4 (3.9) 0.603 0.760 10.3 (3.4) 10.3 (3.1) 10.6 (3.9) 0.811 0.906
 Potassium, mg/d 2831 (832) 2799 (801) 2547 (908)* 0.003 0.004 2545 (739) 2444 (704)* 2372 (705) 0.016 0.026
  1. DG tentative dietary goal for preventing lifestyle-related disease, EAR estimated average requirement, SD standard deviation
  2. Nutrients expressed as amount per day were energy-adjusted by using the following equation: energy-adjusted intake (units/day) = observed dietary intake (units/day) × estimated energy requirement (kcal/day)/observed energy intake (kcal/day)
  3. Sum of retinol, β-carotene/12, α-carotene/24, and cryptoxanthin/24
  4. § Sum of niacin and protein/6000
  5. ǁ The p values are shown for an analysis of variance to analyze differences of nutrient intake between three groups
  6. The p values are shown for covariate analysis to analyze difference of nutrient intake between three groups adjusted for confounding variables of age category (18–34, 35–50, and 51–64 years), occupation (professional / manager, sales / service / clerical, security / transportation / labour, student, housekeeper, and not in paid employment), living alone (yes or no), region (Hokkaido and Tohoku, Kanto, Hokuriku and Tokai, Kinki, Shikoku and Chugoku and Kyusyu), current smoker (yes or no) and habitual alcohol drinker (yes or no). * There is significant difference by Dunnett test compared with Low group in the adjusted model