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Table 1 Characteristics of 2221 Japanese adults aged 18–64 years according to their frequency of consuming meals prepared away from home [Mean (SD) or n (%)]

From: Consumption of meals prepared away from home is associated with inadequacy of dietary fiber, vitamin C and mineral intake among Japanese adults: analysis from the 2015 National Health and Nutrition Survey

  Men Women
Frequency of consuming meals prepared away from home p* Frequency of consuming meals prepared away from home p*
Low
(n = 321)
Moderate
(n = 465)
High
(n = 135)
Low
(n = 608)
Moderate
(n = 610)
High
(n = 82)
Age (years), Mean (SD) 49.6 (11.8) 47.5 (12.4) 44.8 (12.1) 0.001 48.8 (11.0) 47.5 (11.7) 44.7 (11.4) 0.004
Age category, n (%)        0.005        0.016
 18–34 years 44 (13.7) 82 (17.6) 33 (24.4)   67 (11.0) 95 (15.6) 16 (19.5)  
 35-50 years 103 (32.1) 173 (37.2) 52 (38.5)   244 (40.1) 241 (39.5) 39 (47.6)  
 51–64 years 174 (54.2) 210 (45.2) 50 (37.0)   297 (48.9) 274 (44.9) 27 (32.9)  
Body mass index (kg/m2), Mean (SD) 23.8 (3.4) 23.8 (3.5) 24.5 (4.4) 0.132 22.0 (3.4) 22.1 (3.7) 22.0 (3.8) 0.909
Body mass index category, n (%)        0.269        0.190
 Underweight (< 18.5) 6 (1.9) 19 (4.1) 5 (3.7)   59 (9.7) 80 (13.1) 13 (15.9)  
 Normal (18.5–25) 202 (62.9) 302 (65.0) 80 (59.3)   449 (73.9) 424 (69.5) 53 (64.6)  
 Overweight (25≤) 113 (35.2) 144 (31.0) 50 (37.0)   100 (16.5) 106 (17.4) 16 (19.5)  
Occupation, n (%)        0.104        0.097
 Professional / manager 105 (32.7) 162 (34.8) 55 (40.7)   99 (16.3) 84 (13.8) 18 (22.0)  
 Sales / service / clerical 65 (20.3) 117 (25.2) 36 (26.7)   232 (38.2) 263 (43.1) 38 (46.3)  
 Security / transportation / labour 119 (37.1) 135 (29.0) 29 (21.5)   66 (10.9) 45 (7.4) 6 (7.3)  
 Student 3 (0.9) 10 (2.2) 4 (3.0)   7 (1.2) 14 (2.3) 2 (2.4)  
 Housekeeper 3 (0.9) 6 (1.3) 2 (1.5)   193 (31.7) 194 (31.8) 17 (20.7)  
 Not in paid employment 26 (8.1) 35 (7.5) 9 (6.7)   11 (1.8) 10 (1.6) 1 (1.2)  
Living alone, n (%) 11 (3.4) 44 (9.5) 22 (16.3) < 0.001 39 (6.4) 41 (6.7) 14 (17.1) 0.002
Region, n (%)        0.093        0.002
 Hokkaido and Tohoku 41 (12.8) 47 (10.1) 15 (11.1)   63 (10.4) 56 (9.2) 13 (15.9)  
 Kanto 89 (27.7) 176 (37.9) 42 (31.1)   172 (28.3) 207 (33.9) 36 (43.9)  
 Hokuriku and Tokai 60 (18.7) 81 (17.4) 21 (15.6)   101 (16.6) 132 (21.6) 15 (18.3)  
 Kinki 53 (16.5) 82 (17.6) 31 (23.0)   126 (20.7) 100 (16.4) 10 (12.2)  
 Shikoku and Chugoku 39 (12.2) 34 (7.3) 11 (8.2)   67 (11.0) 54 (8.9) 3 (3.7)  
 Kyusyu 39 (12.2) 45 (9.7) 15 (11.1)   79 (13.0) 61 (10.0) 5 (6.1)  
Current smoker, n (%) 102 (31.8) 140 (30.1) 54 (40.0) 0.094 47 (7.7) 55 (9.0) 7 (8.5) 0.720
Habitual alcohol drinker, n (%) 117 (36.5) 172 (37.0) 45 (33.3) 0.736 49 (8.1) 77 (12.6) 10 (12.2) 0.029
Frequency of consuming meals prepared away from home on the dietary recording day        < 0.001        < 0.001
 2 times or more, n (%) 18 (5.6) 67 (14.4) 52 (38.5)   14 (2.3) 49 (8.0) 15 (18.3)  
 Once, n (%) 106 (33.0) 219 (47.1) 68 (50.4)   128 (21.1) 233 (38.2) 41 (50.0)  
 None, n (%) 197 (61.4) 179 (38.5) 15 (11.1)   466 (76.6) 328 (53.8) 26 (31.7)  
Consumption of snacks on the dietary recording day, n (%) 203 (63.2) 293 (63.0) 82 (60.7) 0.870 476 (78.3) 460 (75.4) 55 (67.1) 0.066
  1. SD standard deviation
  2. * Means for continuous values were compared by an analysis of variance and proportions for categorical values were compared by the chi-square test between High, Moderate and Low groups