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Table 2 Adjusted Hazard Ratios (95% confidence intervals) of Mortality according to baseline mushroom intake status among 15,546 NHANES III participants

From: Association of mushroom consumption with all-cause and cause-specific mortality among American adults: prospective cohort study findings from NHANES III

  No Mushroom Intake Mushroom Intake
Person year (PY) 292,296 11,373
Mortality case # 5657 169
Incidence rate (95% CI), per 1000 PY 19.4 (18.9, 20.0) 14.9 (12.8, 17.3)
Model 1 1(ref) 0.79 (0.67, 0.92)
Model 2 1(ref) 0.85 (0.73, 0.97)
Model 3 1(ref) 0.84 (0.73, 0.98)
Sensitivity analysisa
 Propensity score adjustment 1(ref) 0.86 (0.74, 0.99)
 Excluding 385 deaths during the first 2 years of follow-up 1(ref) 0.82 (0.70, 0.97)
 Excluding 4826 participants with major chronic diseasesb 1(ref) 0.83 (0.65, 1.06)
  1. Model 1: Age (years) and sex (men/women) adjusted
  2. Model 2: Model 1 + ethnicity-race (non-Hispanic White, Non-Hispanic Black, Mexican American, others), US regions (Northeast, Midwest, South, West), place of residence (urban/rural), education attainment (years), marital status (married, widowed/divorced/separated, never married) adjusted
  3. Model 3: Model 2 + further adjustment of BMI (< 24.9, 25.0–29.9, ≥30), moderate to vigorous physical activity (yes/no), alcohol (g/d), smoked 100+ cigarettes in life (yes/no), total energy intake (kcal/d), fat (g)/1000 kcal/d), carbohydrates (g)/1000 kcal/d), fiber (g)/1000 kcal/d), and Healthy Eating Index-2000 score
  4. Further adjustment of antioxidant micronutrients: Model 3 + further adjustment of Vitamin E (mg)/1000 kcal/d), β-carotene (mcg)/1000 kcal/d), vitamin C (mg)/1000 kcal/d), copper (mg)/1000 kcal/d), and selenium (mcg)/1000 kcal/d) intake did not change the final the Hazard Ratios and the 95% CIs from Model 3
  5. aBased on model 3
  6. bMajor chronic diseases include congestive heart failure, hypertension/high blood pressure, diabetes, cancer or changed their diet because of high blood pressure