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Table 1 Weighted baseline characteristics of the study participants, NHANES III (N = 15,546)

From: Association of mushroom consumption with all-cause and cause-specific mortality among American adults: prospective cohort study findings from NHANES III

  Participants, No.
Characteristic No Mushroom Intake
(n = 15,002)
Mushroom Intake
(n = 544)
P value‡
Age, mean (SE)a, years 44.4 ± 0.4 42.9 ± 1.4 0.25
Gender %    0.90
 Men 6824 (45.8) 223 (46.3)  
 Women 8178 (54.2) 321 (53.7)  
Regions of United States (%) b    0.15
 Northeast 2050 (20.8) 66 (16.8)  
 Midwest 2897 (24.1) 109 (22.3)  
 South 6491 (34.0) 209 (33.4)  
 West 3564 (21.1) 160 (27.5)  
Place of residence %    0.31
 Urban 7325 (48.2) 267 (51.9)  
 Rural 7677 (51.8) 277 (48.1)  
Race-Ethnicity %    <0.0001
 Non-Hispanic White 6039 (75.6) 329 (87.1)  
 Non-Hispanic Black 4214 (11.2) 82 (4.8)  
 Mexican American 4149 (5.3) 114 (3.1)  
 Others 600 (8.0) 19 (5.0)  
Education attainment, years 12.2 ± 0.1 13.4 ± 0.2 <0.0001
Marital status %    0.22
 Married 8979 (64.4) 349 (66.7)  
 Widowed/Divorced/Separated 3208 (17.6) 95 (13.4)  
 Never married 2815 (17.9) 100 (19.9)  
Body mass index (kg/m2) %    0.13
  < 24.9 6063 (45.9) 224 (43.8)  
 25.0–29.9 5118 (31.7) 201 (37.6)  
  ≥ 30.0 3821 (22.4) 119 (18.6)  
Moderate to vigorous activity% 5364 (39.8) 221 (47.4) 0.007
Smoked 100+ cigarettes % 7334 (52.7) 257 (49.6) 0.23
Alcohol intake, g/d 8.6 ± 0.5 10.5 ± 1.3 0.19
Nutrients Intakes
 Energy intake, kcal/d 2040.3 ± 11.3 2215.1 ± 42.1 0.0002
 Fiber intake, (g)/1000 kcal/d 8.1 ± 0.1 8.6 ± 0.2 0.04
 Fat intake, (g)/1000 kcal/d 37.0 ± 0.2 39.1 ± 0.6 0.001
 Carbohydrate intake, (g)/1000 kcal/d 125.4 ± 0.7 118.4 ± 1.7 0.0002
 Healthy Eating Index-2000 63.8 ± 0.3 66.3 ± 0.8 0.001
Antioxidant micronutrients
 Vitamin E (mg)/1000 kcal/d) 4.4 ± 0.1 4.8 ± 0.2 0.01
 β-carotene (mcg)/1000 kcal/d) 1480.0 ± 38.2 1637.4 ± 117.6 0.22
 Vitamin C (mg)/1000 kcal/d) 52.6 ± 0.8 60.8 ± 3.5 0.03
 Copper (mg)/1000 kcal/d) 0.6 ± 0.01 0.7 ± 0.02 <0.0001
 Selenium (mcg)/1000 kcal/d) 56.3 ± 0.4 59.6 ± 1.7 0.05
  1. a, b All percentages and means ± SE are weighted for complex survey design to be nationally representative estimates. The focus should be on the survey-weighted proportions and means ± SE
  2. ‡For categorical variables, P-value was calculated by the Rao-Scott χ2 test. For continuous variables, P-value was calculated using a t-test
  3. SE: Standard Error