Skip to main content

Table 2 General characteristics of study participants across tertiles of DPI

From: Dietary phytochemical index in relation to risk of glioma: a case-control study in Iranian adults

  Tertiles of DPI
T1
≤21
n = 128
T2
21 < to< 30
n = 128
T3
≥30
n = 128
P*
Age (years) 39 ± 14 42 ± 13 46 ± 13† 0.001
BMI (kg/m2) 26.3 ± 4 26 ± 3 26.1 ± 4 0.20
Males (%) 68 56.3 50.8 0.01
Married (%) 72.7 84.4 82 0.02
University graduated (%) 16.4 14.1 14.9 0.31
High-risk jobs a (%) 3.9 3.1 8.6 0.10
High-risk residential area b (%) 24.2 24.2 25 0.98
Duration of cell phone use (years) 3.8 ± 2.8 3.5 ± 2.4 2.5 ± 2.7† 0.04
History of exposure to the radiographic X-ray (%) 6.3 10.9 13.3 0.16
History of dental photography (%) 49.2 59.4 55.5 0.25
History of head trauma (%) 34.4 27.3 39.8 0.10
History of allergy (%) 21.9 29.7 32 0.16
History of hypertension (%) 2.3 3.9 6.3 0.29
Current smoker (%) 24.2 18 23.4 0.42
Frequent fried food intake c (%) 84.4 89.8 72.7 0.001
Frequent use of barbecue d (%) 16.4 15.6 7.8 0.08
Frequent microwave use (%) 18 18.8 9.4 0.07
Frequent canned foods intake (%) 8.6 3.1 6.3 0.18
Drug use (%) 3.9 3.1 10.9 0.01
Personal hair dye use (%) 22.7 39.1 42.2 0.002
Exposure to chemicals (%) 15.6 10.2 14.8 0.38
Family history of glioma (%) 9.4 13.3 7.8 0.32
Family history of cancer (%) 37.5 27.3 35.9 0.18
Supplement use (%) 13.3 12.5 13.3 0.97
Physical activity (METs) 32.8 ± 5.7 34 ± 5.2 35.5 ± 6.1† 0.001
  1. Data are presented as mean ± standard deviation (SD) or percent
  2. a Farmers were considered as having a high-risk occupation
  3. b Persons who lived in places nearby electromagnetic fields and cell phone and broadcast antennas in the last 10 years were considered as living in high-risk areas
  4. c Persons who consumed fried food at least twice per week were considered as frequent fried food users
  5. d Persons who used barbecue, microwave and canned foods at least twice per week were considered as frequent users
  6. * Obtained from ANOVA with Bonferroni correction or Chi-square test, where appropriate
  7. P-value for the comparison with T1 < 0.05