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Table 1 Maternal factors associated with moderate and severe stunting in Ethiopia using χ2 (chi-square) test

From: Maternal factors associated with moderate and severe stunting in Ethiopian children: analysis of some environmental factors based on 2016 demographic health survey

Characteristic Categories Number of children % of children stunted χ2 p value
    Moderate Severe   
   n (%) n (%) n (%)   
Mother’s educational level No education 5645(63.7) 1411(22.5) 1101(19.5) 195.5 <  0.0001
Primary 2283(25.8) 464(20.3) 331(14.5)  
Secondary/higher 927(10.5) 130(14.0) 48(5.1)  
Mother’s employment status Unemployed 6397(72.2) 1260(19.7) 1056(16.5) 0.911 0.634
Employed 2458(27.8) 507(20.6) 401(16.3)  
Mother’s autonomy Low autonomy 2109(25.8) 428(20.3) 386(18.3) 9.989 0.041
Middle autonomy 5274(63.0) 1050(19.9) 839(15.9)  
High autonomy 982(11.7) 179(18.2) 156(15.9)  
Mother’s BMI(kg/m2) Less than 18.5 2175(24.6) 461(21.2) 426(19.6) 27.95 <  0.0001
18.5 or higher 6680(75.4) 1303(19.5) 1029(15.4)  
Number of ANC visits before delivery No ANC 4732(53.4) 923(19.5) 942(19.9) 77.99 <  0.0001
1–3 1858(21) 372(20.0) 285(15.3)  
At least 4 2265(25.6) 415(18.3) 245(10.8)  
Place of delivery Home 5880(66.4) 1211(20.6) 1158(19.7) 158.4 <  0.0001
Health facility 2975(33.6) 553(18.6) 301(10.1)  
Maternal height (cm) < 150 1408(15.9) 200(14.2) 244(17.3) 125.46 <  0.0001
150–160 4667(52.7) 1003(21.5) 779(16.7)  
> 160 2789(31.5) 438(15.7) 329(11.8)  
Place of residence Urban 1626(18.4) 296(18.2) 127(7.8) 158.2 <  0.0001
  Rural 7229(81.6) 1605(22.2) 1446(20)  
  1. Body Mass Index, Antenatal Care Clinic * South Nations Nationalities and People Region