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Table 1 PICOS criteria for inclusion and exclusion of studies

From: Dietary patterns and associations with biomarkers of inflammation in adults: a systematic review of observational studies

Parameter Inclusion criteria Exclusion criteria
Population • Community-dwelling adults aged 18 years and over
• Females and males
• Generally healthy population
• Clinical populations
• Studies of children and adolescent populations
• Studies examining pregnant or lactating women
Interventions • Observational studies: collected data using single or multiple 24-h recall, food diaries or food frequency questionnaires and assessed diet using scores/indices or data-driven approaches including CA, FA, PCA, RRR • Studies examining individual dietary nutrients, supplements or foods
• Studies that were not observational studies
Comparisons • Observational studies: no comparison population  
Outcomes • One or more of the following inflammatory biomarkers:
 ° Adiponectin
 ° C-reactive protein
 ° Fibrinogen
 ° interleukin-6
 ° tumour necrosis factor-alpha
• Any biomarker not listed in the inclusion criteria
Study design • Cross-sectional studies
• Case-control
• Longitudinal studies
• Literature reviews
• Narrative reviews
• Opinion pieces
• Conference abstracts
• Non-study-based sources
• Intervention studies
• Randomized controlled trials
  1. CA Cluster analysis, FA Factor analysis, PCA Principal component analysis, RRR Reduced-rank regression