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Table 3 Adjusted† OR and 95% CI of NPC with dietary fiber intake by socioeconomic status and tobacco use in Hong Kong China, 2014–2017

From: Dietary fiber intake from fresh and preserved food and risk of nasopharyngeal carcinoma: observational evidence from a Chinese population

    Low SES      High SES    P for interaction
  OR
95% CI
    P for trend‡ OR
95% CI
    P for trend‡  
All subjects
  1 (lowest) 2 3 4 (highest)   1 (lowest) 2 3 4 (highest)   
Total fiber intake
10 years before recruitment 1 (Ref) 0.88 0.78 0.46 0.16 1 (Ref) 0.93 0.67 0.51 0.07 0.79
  0.59–1.30 0.51–1.20 0.28–0.74    0.56–1.55 0.40–1.11 0.28–0.94   
Sources
From intake of fresh vegetables and fruits and soybean products
  10 years before recruitment 1 (Ref) 0.92 0.73 0.52 0.27 1 (Ref) 0.92 0.66 0.35 0.011 0.61
  0.62–1.35 0.48–1.11 0.33–0.85    0.56–1.52 0.39–1.12 0.19–0.64   
From intake of preserved vegetables, fruits and condiments
  10 years before recruitment 1 (Ref) 1.19 1.29 0.92 0.20 1 (Ref) 1.51 2.21 2.30 0.11 0.07
  0.78–1.83 0.84–1.97 0.58–1.45    0.87–2.62 1.27–3.85 1.26–4.19   
  Never smokers Ever smokers  
OR
95% CI
    P for trend‡ OR
95% CI
    P for trend‡  
All subjects
  1 (lowest) 2 3 4 (highest)   1 (lowest) 2 3 4 (highest)   
Total fiber intake
10 years before recruitment 1 (Ref) 0.73 0.53 0.42 0.025 1 (Ref) 1.13 1.05 0.48 0.27 0.11
  0.47–1.13 0.34–0.82 0.26–0.70    0.72–1.78 0.63–1.74 0.27–0.86   
Sources
From intake of fresh vegetable and fruit and soybean product
  10 years before recruitment 1 (Ref) 0.78 0.50 0.35 0.009 1 (Ref) 1.09 1.02 0.51 0.41 0.19
  0.51–1.19 0.32–0.77 0.22–0.58    0.70–1.69 0.62–1.68 0.28–0.92   
From intake of preserved vegetable, fruit and condiment
  10 years before recruitment 1 (Ref) 1.32 1.69 1.72 0.36 1 (Ref) 1.18 1.47 0.95 0.28 0.60
  0.84–2.07 1.08–2.64 1.05–2.80    0.71–1.98 0.88–2.47 0.55–1.62   
  1. Abbreviation: OR Odds ratio; CI Confidence interval; SES Socioeconomic status score; g Gram; ref. Reference group; EBV VCA-IgA, IgA against Epstein-Barr virus viral capsid antigen VCA
  2. † Adjusted for sex and 5-year age group (frequency match), and SES score (range: −1 [lowest] to 13 [highest], calculated by the subject’s, and his/her father’s and mother’s education, housing type at age 10, personal income and household income), smoking and drinking status (never/ever), occupational hazards (never/ever), family history of cancer (none/NPC/other cancers), consumption of salted fish (never/ever), and total energy intake (residual method), EBV VCA-IgA (seronegative/seropositive), duration of sun exposure (< 2/2- < 5/5- < 8/8h hours/day) and circulating levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (< 37.5/37.5 < 75/≥75 nmol/L)
  3. Low SES: SES score < 4; High SES: SES score ≥ 4
  4. ‡ Test for trend was examined for a model that included continuous fiber variables
  5. P-values for interactions by sex, age (< 40, 40- < 65, 65+), drinking status (never, ever), occupational hazards (never/ever), family history of cancer (none/NPC/other cancers), consumption of salted fish (never/ever), duration of sun exposure (< 5/5h hours/day) and circulating levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (< 37.5/37.5 < 75/≥75 nmol/L) for the association between dietary fiber intake and NPC ranged from 0.22–0.99, except for SES and tobacco use (P for interaction < 0.20)