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Table 2 Adjusted† OR and 95% CI of NPC with dietary fiber intake in Hong Kong, China, 2014–2017

From: Dietary fiber intake from fresh and preserved food and risk of nasopharyngeal carcinoma: observational evidence from a Chinese population

  Model 1 Model 2 Model 3
Quartiles of intake
OR
95% CI
P for trend‡ Quartiles of intake
OR
95% CI
P for trend‡ Quartiles of intake
OR
95% CI
P for trend‡
All subjects Mean SD                
(g/week) 1 (lowest) 2 3 4 (highest)   1 (lowest) 2 3 4 (highest)   1 (lowest) 2 3 4 (highest)  
Total fiber intake
age of 13–18 years 29.0 18.1 1 (Ref) 0.86 0.75 0.56 0.006 1 (Ref) 1.05 0.86 0.55 0.07 1 (Ref) 1.06 0.86 0.55 0.08
    0.65–1.13 0.56–1.00 0.40–0.79    0.74–1.50 0.59–1.24 0.35–0.84    0.74–1.51 0.59–1.24 0.36–0.86  
age of 19–30 years 30.6 19.0 1 (Ref) 0.82 0.65 0.49 0.003 1 (Ref) 1.02 0.75 0.49 0.05 1 (Ref) 1.01 0.75 0.49 0.06
    0.64–1.05 0.50–0.85 0.37–0.66    0.75–1.38 0.54–1.04 0.34–0.71    0.74–1.37 0.54–1.05 0.34–0.71  
10 years before recruitment 31.5 19.0 1 (Ref) 0.83 0.66 0.51 0.001 1 (Ref) 0.91 0.73 0.48 0.020 1 (Ref) 0.91 0.73 0.48 0.024
    0.65–1.06 0.51–0.86 0.38–0.69    0.67–1.24 0.53–1.01 0.33–0.69    0.69–1.23 0.53–1.02 0.33–0.70  
Sources
From intake of fresh vegetables and fruits and soybean products
  age of 13–18 years 25.1 15.8 1 (Ref) 0.89 0.73 0.59 0.002 1 (Ref) 1.02 0.77 0.59 0.020 1 (Ref) 1.02 0.75 0.59 0.022
    0.67–1.18 0.55–0.97 0.42–0.82    0.72–1.46 0.54–1.10 0.39–0.89    0.71–1.46 0.53–1.08 0.39–0.90  
  age of 19–30 years 26.8 16.8 1 (Ref) 1.08 0.71 0.64 0.009 1 (Ref) 1.24 0.77 0.55 0.031 1 (Ref) 1.22 0.76 0.55 0.037
    0.83–1.42 0.53–0.94 0.46–0.89    0.88–1.76 0.53–1.10 0.36–0.83    0.86–1.73 0.53–1.09 0.36–0.83  
  10 years before recruitment 28.0 17.0 1 (Ref) 0.93 0.62 0.49 0.001 1 (Ref) 1.02 0.66 0.41 0.003 1 (Ref) 1.01 0.65 0.41 0.004
    0.71–1.22 0.46–0.82 0.35–0.68    0.72–1.44 0.46–0.95 0.27–0.62    0.71–1.42 0.45–0.94 0.27–0.63  
From intake of preserved vegetables, fruits and condiments
  age of 13–18 years 3.9 5.2 1 (Ref) 1.02 1.11 1.16 0.33 1 (Ref) 0.92 1.38 1.33 0.13 1 (Ref) 0.91 1.38 1.34 0.13
    0.76–1.37 0.83–1.49 0.84–1.60    0.64–1.34 0.95–1.99 0.88–2.01    0.62–1.31 0.95–2.00 0.89–2.04  
  age of 19–30 years 3.8 5.2 1 (Ref) 1.14 1.31 1.01 0.74 1 (Ref) 1.05 1.53 1.10 0.83 1 (Ref) 1.04 1.54 1.12 0.82
    0.87–1.49 1.01–1.70 0.76–1.34    0.75–1.46 1.11–2.12 0.77–1.57    0.75–1.46 1.11–2.13 0.78–1.60  
  10 years before recruitment 3.5 4.8 1 (Ref) 1.24 1.39 1.12 0.92 1 (Ref) 1.25 1.57 1.26 1.00 1 (Ref) 1.24 1.57 1.28 0.99
    0.95–1.62 1.07–1.81 0.85–1.49    0.90–1.74 1.13–2.19 0.88–1.80    0.89–1.73 1.13–2.18 0.89–1.83  
  1. Abbreviation: OR Odds ratio; CI Confidence interval; SD Standard deviation; g Gram; ref. Reference group; EBV VCA-IgA, IgA against Epstein-Barr virus viral capsid antigen VCA
  2. † Model 1: adjusted for sex and 5-year age group (frequency match), and socioeconomic status score (range: −1 [lowest] to 13 [highest], calculated by the subject’s, and his/her father’s and mother’s education, housing type at age 10, personal income and household income), smoking and drinking status (never/ever), occupational hazards (never/ever), family history of cancer (none/NPC/other cancers), consumption of salted fish (never/ever), and total energy intake (residual method) as appropriate
  3. Model 2: Model 1 + EBV VCA-IgA (seronegative/seropositive)
  4. Model 3: Model 1 + EBV VCA-IgA (seronegative/seropositive) + duration of sun exposure (< 2/2- < 5/5- < 8/8h hours/day) and circulating levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (< 37.5/37.5 < 75/≥75 nmol/L)
  5. ‡ Test for trend was examined for a model that included continuous fiber variables