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Table 2 Dairy products consumption per day, and hypertension risk. E3N Cohort, France 1993–2008 (N = 40,526)

From: Dairy product consumption and hypertension risk in a prospective French cohort of women

Dairy products (servings/week)CasesPerson-yearsM1M2M3
HR [95% CI]pHR [95% CI]pHR [95% CI]p
Total dairy
 Q1 (< 9.1)185898,273Reference0.38Reference0.41Reference0.86
 Q2 (9.1–12.6)182099,3800.97 [0.90; 1.03] 0.97 [0.90; 1.03] 0.97 [0.91; 1.03] 
 Q3 (12.6–16.1)189098,6091.01 [0.87; 1.04] 0.99 [0.93; 1.06] 1.00 [0.94; 1.07] 
 Q4 (16.1–21.0)190398,7911.02 [0.85; 1.07] 0.99 [0.83; 1.06] 1.00 [0.94; 1.07] 
 Q5 (> 21.0)186898,2570.99 [0.93: 1.07] 0.96 [0.89; 1.03] 0.97 [0.91; 1.04] 
Milk
 Q1 (0)4042210,401Reference0.54Reference0.66Reference0.23
 Q2 (0–2.1)163091,7190.93 [0.88; 0.98] 0.93 [0.87; 0.99] 0.95 [0.88; 1.03] 
 Q3 (2.1–4.2)186197,1321.02 [0.96; 1.09] 0.98 [0.92; 1.05] 0.94 [0.90; 0.99] 
 Q4 (>  4.2)180794,0570.99 [0.91; 1.07] 1.01 [0.94; 1.08] 0.96 [0.61; 1.01] 
Yogurt
 Q1 (0)120657,794Reference0.04Reference0.10Reference0.09
 Q2 (0–2.9)3078169,8610.92 [0.85; 0.98] 0.93 [0.87; 1.00] 0.99 [0.94; 1.05] 
 Q3 (2.9–5.0)2550137,6450.94 [0.87; 1.01] 0.95 [0.88; 1.02] 0.99 [0.94; 1.05] 
 Q4 (>  5.0)2506128,0091.02 [0.94; 1.10] 1.02 [0.94; 1.10] 1.06 [1.00; 1.12] 
Cottage cheese
 Q1 (0)2463131,350Reference0.72Reference0.38Reference0.23
 Q2 (0–0.6)2256119,1691.05 [0.99; 1.11] 1.03 [0.97; 1.10] 1.03 [0.97; 1.09] 
 Q3 (0.6–1.6)2237120,0491.03 [0.97; 1.09] 1.02 [0.96; 1.08] 1.05 [0.99; 1.11] 
 Q4 (>  1.6)2384122,7421.03 [0.97; 1.10] 1.00 [0.94; 1.06] 0.98 [0.92; 1.05] 
Cheese
 Q1 (<  3.7)2300122,557Reference0.53Reference0.57Reference0.51
 Q2 (3.7–6.4)2344123,8301.04 [0.98; 1.10] 1.05 [0.99; 1.11] 1.02 [0.96; 1.08] 
 Q3 (6.4–9.7)2404123,1301.01 [1.01; 1.16] 1.09 [1.02; 1.17] 1.05 [0.99; 1.11] 
 Q4 (>  9.7)2292123,7920.94 [0.94; 1.12] 1.03 [0.95; 1.14] 0.98 [0.92; 1.05] 
  1. M1: Adjusted for energy (energy without alcohol (kcal/d)),
  2. M2: M1+ smoking status (never, former, current), education (without high school diploma, with high school diploma), family history of hypertension (no, yes), and physical activity (mets/d))
  3. M3: M2+ alcohol (g/d)), processed meat(g/d)), fruits and vegetables(g/d))