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Table 3 The effects of flaxseed supplementation on serum levels of anthropometric indices and metabolic parameters in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome at baseline and after the intervention

From: The effects of flaxseed supplementation on metabolic status in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a randomized open-labeled controlled clinical trial

Variables Flaxseed group (n = 21)Control group (n = 20)Between-group comparison
P1P2
Weight (kg)Baseline73.90 ± 15.2076.8 ± 16.860.5470.465
End72.99 ± 15.3277.7 ± 16.730.3290.006
P30.0310.014
Waist circumference (cm)Baseline88.71 ± 10.9991.68 ± 13.990.4330.260
End86.88 ± 11.3493.47 ± 11.270.0780.016
P30.0010.467
BMI (kg/m2)Baseline28.38 ± 5.1528.94 ± 5.63.7290.537
End27.99 ± 5.1329.31 ± 5.590.4140.003
P30.0230.012
FBS (mg/dl)Baseline101.86 ± 12.08101.77 ± 10.010.9770.887
End94.25 ± 9.78101 ± 11.310.0560.021
P30.1510.606
Insulin (μIU/mL)Baseline12.17 ± 4.512.28 ± 3.350.1360.647
End9.79 ± 3.7813.69 ± 5.250.0030.013
P30.0260.352
HOMA-IRBaseline3.04 ± 1.193.08 ± 0.890.6580.566
End2.32 ± 1.063.35 ± 1.140.0020.009
P30.0170.652
QUICKIBaseline0.32 ± 0.010.32 ± 0.010.6730.716
End0.34 ± 0.020.32 ± 0.020.0010.006
P30.0340.748
Total cholesterol (mg/dL)Baseline147.86 ± 33.32153.16 ± 25.620.3870.395
End140.25 ± 29.21143.27 ± 22.720.7270.871
P30.3010.118
LDL-cholesterol (mg/dL)Baseline84.09 ± 35.5188.82 ± 41.860.6840.844
End71.85 ± 32.2178.03 ± 20.10.4880.665
P30.1470.252
HDL-cholesterol (mg/dL)Baseline34.26 ± 11.7537 ± 10.670.4180.135
End43.3 ± 10.8834.61 ± 7.50.008P<
P3P < 0.0010.2850.001
Triglycerides (mg/dL)Baseline147.56 ± 21.59156.77 ± 30.850.2550.201
End125.5 ± 28.45153.16 ± 25.620.0030.007
P3P < 0.0010.828
Total testosterone (ng/mL)Baseline0.93 ± 0.260.94 ± 0.250.6660.994
End0.95 ± 0.250.96 ± 0.240.6610.863
P30.8230.349
SHBG (nmol/L)Baseline45.02 ± 31.5243.02 ± 12.570.2860.610
End55.9 ± 9.6949.05 ± 13.40.1520.052
P30.2470.154
FAIBaseline2.49 ± 1.322.33 ± 1.020.2190.319
End1.75 ± 0.552.21 ± 1.160.1350.068
P30.0150.372
mF-G scoresBaseline12.52 ± 7.5311.04 ± 4.610.5390.509
 End11.43 ± 7.210.68 ± 4.20.8790.726
P3P < 0.0010.179
hs-CRP (mg/L)Baseline3.86 ± 1.533.81 ± 1.630.9120.581
End2.87 ± 1.33.78 ± 1.030.0230.021
P30.020.596
IL-6 (pg/mL)Baseline4.54 ± 1.455.07 ± 1.510.1660.329
End5.05 ± 1.75.08 ± 2.070.0470.235
P30.2320.158
Adiponectin (mg/mL)Baseline13.04 ± 3.3614.56 ± 4.160.0440.073
End17.36 ± 4.114.18 ± 4.540.030.042
P30.0020.793
Leptin (ng/mL)Baseline70.18 ± 13.3864.64 ± 21.670.6330.329
End57.96 ± 10.1970.97 ± 190.0160.006
P30.010.132
  1. BMI, body mass index; FBS, fasting blood sugar; HOMA-IR, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance; QUICKI, quantitative insulin-sensitivity check index; LDL-C, low-density lipoprotein; HDL-C, high density lipoprotein; SHBG, sex hormone-binding globulin; FAI, free androgen index; mF-G score, modified Ferriman-Gallwey; hs-CRP, high sensitivity C-reactive protein; IL-6, interleukin-6
  2. P1: between-group comparison of the variables; independent sample t-test (for FBS, TC, LDL, HDL, hs-CRP, adiponectin, leptin, and FAI) and Mann–Whitney U test (for other variables). P2: between-group comparison of the variables at baseline and after the intervention; analysis of covariance in the adjusted models (adjusted for age, BMI, dietary intake of energy, physical activity, and baseline biochemical variables). P3: within-group comparison of the variables; paired sample t-test (for FBS, TC, LDL, HDL, hs-CRP, adiponectin, leptin, and FAI) and Wilcoxon signed-rank test (for other variables)