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Table 3 Linear regression analyses showing association between optimism, diet quality, energy and macronutrient intake and food group consumption (NutriNet-Santé study, 2016)

From: Optimism is associated with diet quality, food group consumption and snacking behavior in a general population

OutcomesΒeta-coefficient (95% CI) 
LOT-RP3
Model 11Model 22 
Diet quality (N = 17,849)
 mPNNS-GS40.11 (0.08, 0.15)0.07 (0.04, 0.11)< 0.0001
Energy and macronutrient intake (N = 19,335)
 Energy intake, kcal/d8.02 (−0.04, 16.08)5.66 (−3.24, 14.55)0.21
 Energy intake without alcohol, kcal/ d4.19 (− 3.73, 12.12)2.37 (−6.33, 11.08)0.59
 Protein, %−0.19 (0.25, − 0.13)−0.16 (− 0.23, − 0.09)< 0.0001
 Carbohydrate, %−0.34 (− 0.48, 0.19)−0.32 (− 0.47, − 0.16)< 0.0001
 Lipid, %0.33 (0.20, 0.45)0.31 (0.17, 0.44)< 0.0001
Food group consumption (N = 19,335)
 Fruit and vegetables, g/d12.89 (7.86, 17.92)7.76 (2.42, 13.10)0.0044
 Seafood, g/d1.49 (0.77, 2.21)1.09 (0.31, 1.88)0.0064
 Meat and poultry, g/d−2.20 (−3.15, −1.25)−2.07 (− 3.07, −1.07)< 0.0001
 Dairy products, g/d−8.35 (− 11.36, −5.34)−8.84 (− 12.12, −5.58)< 0.0001
  Cheese, g/d0.33 (−0.25, 0.91)0.10 (−0.51, 0.71)0.74
 Starchy foods, g/d−0.63 (− 2.48, 1.22)− 0.94 (− 2.76, 0.89)0.31
  Whole grains, g/d1.96 (0.92, 3.01)1.63 (0.49, 2.76)0.005
 Fats, g/d0.30 (−0.005, 0.60)0.37 (0.05, 0.69)0.023
 Sugary and fatty foods, g/d0.63 (−0.40, 1.65)−0.52 (−1.70, 0.67)0.39
 Sugar and confectionery, g/d−0,52 (−1.14, 0.11)− 0.85 (− 1.51, − 0.20)0.011
 Non-alcoholic beverages, g/d16.46 (8.77, 24.15)5.48 (−2.95, 13.92)0.21
 Alcoholic beverages, g/d6.87 (3.91, 9.82)5.71 (2.54, 8.88)0.0004
  1. 1Model adjusted for age and gender
  2. 2Model adjusted for age, gender, education level, occupational status, monthly income per household unit, energy intake (except for the model where energy intake was the outcome) BMI and depressive symptomatology
  3. 3P value based on linear regressions adjusted for age, gender, education level, occupational status, monthly income per household unit, energy intake (except for the model where energy intake was the outcome) BMI and depressive symptomatology, with optimism as a continuous independent variable
  4. 4mPNNS-GS, modified French National Nutrition and Health Program Guideline Score