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Table 1 Individual characteristics of 19,335 participants (NutriNet-Santé study, 2016)

From: Optimism is associated with diet quality, food group consumption and snacking behavior in a general population

 % or Mean ± SDLOT-RP1
All 2.54 ± 0.64a 
Gender, %  < 0.0001
 Male27.482.58 ± 0.60 
 Female72.522.53 ± 0.65 
Age (years)56.09 ± 13.760.0089 (−0.0052, 0.023)b0.21
Education level, %  < 0.0001
 Primary2.122.46 ± 0.55 
 Secondary27.962.48 ± 0.62 
 Undergraduate31.642.55 ± 0.64 
 Postgraduate38.232.59 ± 0.65 
 Missing data0.05  
Occupational status, %  < 0.0001
 Unemployed8.782.47 ± 0.72 
 Student1.172.38 ± 0.78 
 Self-employed, farmer1.492.68 ± 0.65 
 Employee, manual worker9.942.45 ± 0.69 
 Intermediate professions12.892.55 ± 0.65 
 Managerial staff, intellectual profession20.172.62 ± 0.64 
 Retired45.572.54 ± 0.60 
Monthly income per household unit, %c  < 0.0001
 < 1200€7.592.45 ± 0.74 
 1200–1799€18.712.50 ± 0.65 
 1800–2299€15.342.50 ± 0.65 
 2300–2699€11.252.56 ± 0.62 
 2700–3699€19.842.60 ± 0.60 
 > 3700€15.722.64 ± 0.62 
 Unwilling to answer11.272.47 ± 0.62 
 Missing data0.28  
BMI (kg/m2), %  < 0.0001
 < 18.55.062.44 ± 0.71 
 18.5–24.9965.382.57 ± 0.63 
 25–29.9922.272.53 ± 0.62 
 ≥ 307.272.43 ± 0.70 
 Missing data0.02  
Physical activity, %  < 0.0001
 Low20.922.47 ± 0.66 
 Moderate40.162.54 ± 0.64 
 High38.892.58 ± 0.62 
 Missing data0.04  
Smoking status, %  0.019
 Never-smoker51.442.53 ± 0.65 
 Former smoker40.402.56 ± 0.62 
 Current smoker8.162.55 ± 0.67 
Depressive symptomatology (CES-Dd), %  < 0.0001
 Yes (≥16)15.192.03 ± 0.65 
 No (< 16)68.082.66 ± 0.58 
 Missing data16.73  
  1. LOT-R, Life Orientation Test-Revised, score ranges from 0 to 4, the highest score corresponds to highest optimism
  2. 1p-value based on linear regressions for categorical variables or Fisher’s z transformation for continuous variables
  3. aMean ± SD, all such values
  4. bPearson correlations (95% CI), all such values
  5. cMonthly income represents the household income per month calculated by consumption unit (CU). The number of people of the household was converted into a number of CU according to a weighting system: one CU is attributed for the first adult in the household, 0.5 for other persons aged 14 or older and 0.3 for children under 14
  6. dCES-D, Center for Epidemiology Studies Depression scale, score ranges from 0 to 60 the highest score corresponds to highest depressive symptomatology