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Table 1 Characteristics of 17 studies included in the meta-analysis (− 2020)

From: Dietary patterns and chronic kidney disease risk: a systematic review and updated meta-analysis of observational studies

Author
Publication Year
Location Study design Total number of subjects Age Diet-assessment method Factors adjusted for in analysis Dietary patterns identified
Mazidi et al. 2018 [12] United states Cross-sectional 21,649 ≥18y FFQ Age, sex, race, body mass index, triglyceride, high density lipoprotein, diabetes,and hypertension Saturated-MUFA; minerals and vitamins; Cholesterol-PUFA
Shi et al.
2018 [13]
China Cross-sectional 8429 ≥18y FFQ Age, gender, intake of energy,education, income, urbanization level, smoking, alcohol drinking, physical activity, overweight/obesity, hypertension, and diabetes. Traditional southern; Modern.
Xu et al. 2020 [19] China Cross-sectional 2004 45-59y FFQ Age (continuous), gender, income (continuous), education level (<high school, high school, >high school), physical activity level (light, moderate, heavy), smoking status (never, current, former), BMI (continuous), T2DM(yes/no) and hypertension (yes/no), total energy intake (continuous) Traditional southern Chinese; Western; Grains-vegetables
Yuzbashian et al. 2018 [25] Iran Cohort 5904 ≥30y FFQ age (continuous), sex (male, female), smoking (never, current smoker), total energy intake (continuous), body mass index (BMI; continuous), angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEi; yes, no) and physical activity (low, moderate and high) DASH-style diet
Kurniawan et al. 2019 [26] China (Taiwan) Cross-sectional 41,128 40-95y FFQ age, gender, BMI, smoking status, drinking status, physical activity, high cardiovascular risk profile, hypertension status (except hypertension variable), diabetes status (except diabetes variable), albumin, and CRP Unhealthy
Eimery et al. 2020 [27] Iran Cross-sectional 266 60–83 y FFQ Age, sex, BMI, smoking status, physical activity, BP, use of medications, dietary intakes of protein, potassium, calcium, magnesium and phosphorous, supplement intake, socioeconomic status, and energy intake Healthy; Western; Traditional
Asghari et al. 2018 [28] Iran Cohort 1630 ≥27y FFQ Age, sex, smoking, total energy intake, physical activity, and body mass index, diabetes and hypertension Lacto vegetarian; Traditional Iranian; Hiagh fat,high sugar
Paterson et al. 2018 [29] United Kingdom Cross-sectional 1033 56-100y FFQ Age, BMI, presence of diabetes, presence of hypertension, ever smoking, presence/history of ischemic heart disease, presence/history of cerebrovascular accident and ever alcohol. Healthy;unhealthy
Lara et al. 2019 [30] United states Cohort 16,068 ≥45y FFQ unadjusted Plant-based; southern
Hu et al. 2019 [31] United states Cohort 12,155 45-64y FFQ Age, sex, race-center, total energy intake, education level, income, and estimated glomerular filtration rate, physical activity, smoking status, and pack-years, BMI, diabetes,systolic blood pressure, antihypertensive medication use, and HDL cholesterol. Dietary acid load HEI-2015;AHEI-2010;aMed
Rouhani Hossein et al. 2019 [32] Iran Cross-sectional 221 Mean:56.5y FFQ Age, family history of colorectal cancer, history of endoscopy, physical activity, pack-years of smoking before age 30, race, aspirin use, total energy intake, and BMI High fruits and vegetables; high simple carbohydrate and sugar; high fat
Huang et al.
2013 [33]
Sweden Cohort 1110 Approximately 70 y FFQ BMI, physical activity, smoking status, education, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and diabetes Mediterranean Diet
Hu et al. 2020 [34] United states Cohort 12,692 45-64y Questionnaire Total energy intake, age, sex, race-center, income, education level, health insurance, smoking, physical activity, diabetes status, hypertension status, body mass index, baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate drinker
Koning et al. 2015 [35] Netherlands Cohort 5476 28-75y Questionnaire Age, sex, height, weight, smoking status, parental history of CKD, history of cardiovascular disease, and educational level Alcohol consumption
Sato et al.
2014 [36]
Japan Cohort 9112 40-55y Questionnaire age, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure,fasting plasma glucose, smoking habits (nonsmokers, past smokers, and current smokers), and regular leisure-time physical activity (yes/no). Drinking pattern
Okada et al. 2019 [37] Japan Cohort 9116 40-55y Questionnaire Age, BMI, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, smoking habits (nonsmokers, past smokers, and current smokers), and regular leisure-time physical activity (yes/no),eGFR at baseline Drinkers
Foster et al. 2015 [38] United kingdom Cohort 1964 Mean:62.5y FFQ other listed lifestyle factors, age, sex, baseline eGFR, BMI, hypertension, diabetes, and dipstick proteinurial Alcohol consumption
  1. BMI: body mass index;DASH: dietary approaches to stop hypertension;BP: blood pressure; FFQ: food frequency questionnaire;T2DM:type 2 diabetes mellitus