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Table 2 Gender differences in perceived healthiness of foods and food components in a Swedish population (N = 554)

From: Gender differences in perceived food healthiness and food avoidance in a Swedish population-based survey: a cross sectional study

  Very healthy
N (%)
Somewhat healthy
N (%)
Somewhat unhealthy
N (%)
Very unhealthy
N (%)
No opinion
N (%)
P*
Carbohydrate       0.218
 Female 16 (5) 131 (43) 131 (43) 10 (3) 16 (5)  
 Male 20 (8) 115 (47) 84 (34) 11 (5) 16 (7)  
Fat       0.427
 Female 35 (12) 143 (47) 97 (32) 18 (6) 10 (3)  
 Male 19 (8) 128 (52) 74 (30) 20 (8) 7 (3)  
Saturated fat       0.809
 Female 9 (3) 53 (18) 111 (37) 91 (30) 39 (13)  
 Male 11 (5) 49 (20) 87 (35) 72 (29) 28 (11)  
Alcohol       0.001
 Female 3 (1) 10 (3) 146 (48) 140 (46) 6 (2)  
 Male 11 (4) 23 (9) 121 (49) 86 (35) 7 (3)  
Sugar       0.010
 Female 2 (0.7) 10 (3) 107 (35) 184 (60) 3 (1)  
 Male 1 (0.4) 13 (5) 120 (48) 112 (45) 2 (0.8)  
Salt       0.470
 Female 3 (1) 56 (19) 201 (66) 34 (11) 9 (3)  
 Male 4 (2) 47 (19) 161 (65) 22 (9) 14 (6)  
Gluten       0.023
 Female 5 (2) 71 (23) 81 (27) 18 (6) 128 (42)  
 Male 8 (3) 61 (25) 51 (21) 4 (2) 121 (49)  
Lactose       0.370
 Female 11 (4) 76 (25) 77 (26) 8 (3) 128 (43)  
 Male 4 (2) 71 (29) 53 (22) 5 (2) 114 (46)  
Dairy       0.019
 Female 54 (18) 156 (52) 61 (20) 5 (2) 27 (9)  
 Male 41 (17) 159 (64) 28 (11) 3 (1) 16 (7)  
Red meat       0.001
 Female 8 (3) 75 (25) 148 (49) 51 (17) 22 (7)  
 Male 14 (6) 85 (34) 116 (47) 16 (7) 16 (7)  
White flour       < 0.001
 Female 3 (1) 27 (9) 169 (55) 93 (31) 13 (4)  
 Male 5 (2) 56 (23) 110 (45) 48 (20) 27 (11)  
Sweetening agents       < 0.001
 Female 1 (0.3) 5 (2) 87 (29) 182 (60) 30 (10)  
 Male 3 (1) 15 (6) 79 (32) 103 (42) 47 (19)  
Preservative agents       < 0.001
 Female 0 (0) 9 (3) 135 (44) 119 (39) 42 (14)  
 Male 4 (2) 18 (7) 109 (44) 64 (26) 53 (21)  
Coloring agents       < 0.001
 Female 0 (0) 4 (1) 104 (34) 158 (52) 39 (13)  
 Male 4 (2) 11 (4) 96 (39) 81 (33) 56 (23)  
  1. *Differences between women and men derived by chi square test