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Table 4 Adjusted HRs (with 95% CIs) for insulin resistance by dietary acid load scores by sex, age, BMI, and physical activity levels at baseline, the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study (Ansan-Ansung)a

From: Positive association between dietary acid load and future insulin resistance risk: findings from the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study

  Dietary acid load scores Ptrendb
Q1 (lowest) Q2 Q3 Q4 (highest)
HR (95% CI) HR (95% CI) HR (95% CI) HR (95% CI)
PRAL
 Sex
 Men (n = 2707) 1.00 1.25 (1.07–1.48) 1.16 (0.97–1.38) 1.41 (1.17–1.72) 0.0017
 Women (n = 2699) 1.00 1.20 (1.04–1.39) 1.28 (1.10–1.50) 1.13 (0.94–1.37) 0.0431
 Age
 < 50 yrs. (n = 2742) 1.00 1.24 (1.06–1.46) 1.24 (1.04–1.47) 1.42 (1.16–1.73) 0.0012
 ≥ 50 yrs. (n = 2664) 1.00 1.20 (1.04–1.39) 1.20 (1.03–1.41) 1.15 (0.96–1.39) 0.0683
 Presence of obesityc
 Yes (n = 1892) 1.00 1.28 (1.09–1.51) 1.15 (0.96–1.37) 1.36 (1.11–1.67) 0.0103
 No (n = 3514) 1.00 1.18 (1.03–1.37) 1.29 (1.10–1.50) 1.28 (1.07–1.52) 0.0043
 Physical activity leveld
 Low (n = 2735) 1.00 1.29 (1.10–1.51) 1.26 (1.06–1.50) 1.33 (1.10–1.62) 0.0078
 High (n = 2671) 1.00 1.16 (1.00–1.34) 1.18 (1.00–1.38) 1.26 (1.05–1.52) 0.0126
NEAP
 Sex
 Men (n = 2707) 1.00 1.16 (0.99–1.37) 1.11 (0.93–1.32) 1.31 (1.07–1.59) 0.0111
 Women (n = 2699) 1.00 1.20 (1.03–1.40) 1.26 (1.07–1.49) 1.22 (1.01–1.47) 0.0355
 Age
 < 50 yrs. (n = 2742) 1.00 1.27 (1.08–1.50) 1.23 (1.03–1.48) 1.43 (1.17–1.75) 0.0024
 ≥ 50 yrs. (n = 2664) 1.00 1.21 (1.05–1.39) 1.19 (1.02–1.39) 1.16 (0.96–1.40) 0.1253
 Presence of obesityc
 Yes (n = 1892) 1.00 1.18 (1.00–1.39) 1.10 (0.93–1.32) 1.33 (1.08–1.63) 0.0150
 No (n = 3514) 1.00 1.26 (1.09–1.45) 1.30 (1.11–1.52) 1.28 (1.07–1.53) 0.0196
 Physical activity leveld
 Low (n = 2735) 1.00 1.27 (1.08–1.49) 1.22 (1.03–1.45) 1.36 (1.11–1.66) 0.0106
 High (n = 2671) 1.00 1.20 (1.04–1.39) 1.19 (1.01–1.40) 1.23 (1.03–1.48) 0.0500
  1. HR hazard ratio, CI confidence interval, Q quartile, PRAL potential renal acid load, NEAP net endogenous acid production, BMI body mass index, MET metabolic equivalent task
  2. aAll models were adjusted for sex (men or women), age (years), area of residence (Ansan or Ansung), education level (≤elementary school, middle/high school, or ≥ college), smoking status (never, past, or current), alcohol consumption (g/day), body mass index (kg/m2), physical activity (MET-hour/week), fasting blood glucose level (mg/dL), estimated glomerular filtration rate (mL/min/1.73 m2), family history of diabetes (yes or no), history of hypertension or hyperlipidemia (yes or no), total energy intake (kcal/day), and energy-adjusted carbohydrate, fat, and dietary fiber intake (g/day)
  3. bTests for trend linearity were conducted with the Wald test by considering the median values of each quartile as continuous variables in the analytic models
  4. cObesity was defined as BMI ≥25 kg/m2
  5. dPhysical activity levels were categorized in two groups (low vs. high) based on activity level quartile. Participants in the lower two quartiles of physical activity level were classified as the low-physical-activity group, and those in the upper two quartiles were classified as the high-physical-activity group