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Table 3 Adjusted HRs (with 95% CIs) for insulin resistance by dietary acid load scores, the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study (Ansan-Ansung)a

From: Positive association between dietary acid load and future insulin resistance risk: findings from the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study

  Dietary acid load scores Ptrendb Per 1 SD increase
Q1 (lowest) Q2 Q3 Q4 (highest)
PRAL
 Median, mEq/d −7.1 3.1 8.5 14.7   5.9
 Person-years 10,232 9935 9895 9929   39,991
 Incident cases (n) 841 885 859 864   3449
 Rate per 1000 person-years 82.2 89.1 86.8 87.0   86.2
  HR (95% CI) HR (95% CI) HR (95% CI) HR (95% CI)   HR (95% CI)
 Model 1 1.00 1.09 (0.99–1.20) 1.07 (0.97–1.18) 1.08 (0.98–1.19) 0.1193 1.02 (0.98–1.05)
 Model 2 1.00 1.13 (1.02–1.24) 1.10 (1.00–1.21) 1.14 (1.03–1.25) 0.0155 1.04 (1.00–1.07)
 Model 3 1.00 1.22 (1.09–1.35) 1.21 (1.08–1.36) 1.30 (1.13–1.48) 0.0002 1.13 (1.06–1.20)
NEAP
 Median, mEq/d 32.0 40.5 46.5 55.4   43.5
 Person-years 10,148 9943 9959 9941   39,991
 Incident cases (n) 841 879 864 865   3449
 Rate per 1000 person-years 82.9 88.4 86.8 87.0   86.2
  HR (95% CI) HR (95% CI) HR (95% CI) HR (95% CI)   HR (95% CI)
 Model 1 1.00 1.08 (0.98–1.19) 1.07 (0.97–1.17) 1.08 (0.98–1.19) 0.1850 1.02 (0.99–1.06)
 Model 2 1.00 1.15 (1.04–1.27) 1.09 (0.99–1.21) 1.14 (1.03–1.26) 0.0247 1.04 (1.00–1.07)
 Model 3 1.00 1.23 (1.11–1.37) 1.20 (1.07–1.35) 1.30 (1.14–1.49) 0.0008 1.10 (1.05–1.16)
  1. HR, hazard ratio; CI, confidence interval; Q, quartile; SD, standard deviation; PRAL, potential renal acid load; NEAP, net endogenous acid production; MET, metabolic equivalent task
  2. aModel 1 was adjusted for sex (men or women) and age (years); model 2 was additionally adjusted for area of residence (Ansan or Ansung), education level (≤elementary school, middle/high school, or ≥ college), smoking status (never, past, or current), alcohol consumption (g/day), body mass index (kg/m2), physical activity (MET-hour/week), fasting blood glucose level (mg/dL), estimated glomerular filtration rate (mL/min/1.73 m2), family history of diabetes (yes or no), and history of hypertension or hyperlipidemia (yes or no); model 3 was additionally adjusted for total energy intake (kcal/day) and energy-adjusted carbohydrate, fat, and dietary fiber intakes (g/day)
  3. bTests for trend linearity were conducted with the Wald test by considering the median values of each quartile as continuous variables in the analytic models